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Chapter 1-4

Geography 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-4: Regional Geography, Historical Geography, Dutch Disease

Course Code
GEOG 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

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Lecture 1: 3-16
Intro: Regional Geography
-“ a country of regions” is a political reality due to geography and history, but economy creates tension
-6 regions; location, physical geography, resources, historical development; regional identity; economic, physical, social
-fued b/w federal and provincial government
-mostly export to states; some to China
-shift in trade due to gobal realignment of world power (Asia) as well as slow recovery of US economy; fill gap lost from
trade to US; less dependent on US market
-resource-rich regions (West) gained the most, while manufacturing belt (Central) lost the most
Geography as a Discipline
-place is so important; determines experiences, chances
-place is the community/region where one was born and raised; shapes values and attitudes of inhabitants
regional identity and consciousness: formed by the concept of place based on living, working and sharing common space and
experience; based on physical, historical, economical situation
-connection b/w identity and regionalism; questions on page 4
region: area defined by distinctive human*/natural characteristics. Boundaries are transition zones where main characteristics of one
region merge into bordering region.
-physical environment largely mediated by human environment; culture, economy, tech.
regional geography : geographic study of a particular part of the world
-EPS imprint landscape while landscape determines their lives
-what aspects of a region shape the ppl living there?
sense of place: Extreme experiences cause ppl to respond and feel regional belonging and consciousness; social product
regional self-interest: outcome of regional identity and consciousness leading to conflicts b/w profincial and federal governments;
different views of “nation”; economic well-being
Dutch disease: economic gains in a region and losses in another attributed to this
-explanation on page 5 (don’t understand)
Canada’s Geographic Regions
-at margins of regions, physical and human characteristics become less distinct; transition zones
6 geographic regions
-Territorial North (megaprojects), BC (forest industry), Western Canada (3; agriculture), Ontario (car manu.), Quebec
(hydroelectric power), Atlantic Canada (4; fisheries); sub regions too but 6 is easy to understand
-Effort to balance regions by geographic size, conomic importance and pop size; many provincies combined, but province like
ontario have enough size, economic importance and pop to form own region
-Regions due to geo, historical, area, pop, economy, French, aboriginals
-Challenges to interpreting regions due to shift in global power and changes in demographic and economic strengths; shift
political power
-Summary paragraph at bottom of page 7
These regions are:
-distinctive physical features, natural resources and economic activities
-reflect political structure of Canada
-help statistical data
-linked to regional identity
-oassociated w/ reoccurring regional complaints and disputes
-reveal regional economic strengths and cultural presence
The Dynamic Nature of Regions

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-inequal pop increases (demographic shift) mirrors shift in economy due to global forces; who has the political power then?
-Keep up with these changes in economic power (Asia); how to do this? Answers vary
Sense of Place
-history; deep roots in cultural and regional geography
-sense of place; deep attachment to region/area by local residents who have, over time, bonded to their environment and
institutions; this provides protection from landscapes produced by economic and cultural globalization
-landscapes associated w/ sense of placelessness vs. locale causes psychological bond w/ ppl
-local roots from nature, human activities, institutional bodies in a region
-sense of place; ppl undergo similar experiences (due to geo) leading to shared dreams, concerns, values; social cohesiveness
-sense of place can be from bitterness, but also about home, fond memories, security and strength to endure vagaries of natural
world in a particular locale
-summary pg. 9-10 what does Canadian federalism mean?
Faultlines within Canada
-economic, social and political cracks dividing the regions and ppl threaten to destabilize Canada’s integrity as a nation
-sometimes dormant, but can shift at any time
-ie. disabled, rural/urban, rich and poor, homeless, resources
Major faultlines
1. centralist and decentralist visions of Canada
2. English and French
3. Old and new Canadians
4. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians
-conflicts dissolved by discussion and compromise; “soft” nation
-nature of Canada; English/French; conflict
Centralist/Decentralist Faultline
-leans most heavily on Canada’s geography an political system
-led to federal and provincial fueds; provincial control over natural resources
-disputes b/w provinces and Ottawa
-don’t understand
English-Speaking/French-speaking Canadians
-both equal status, but French in Quebec to ensure maintenance of culture
-increase French speakers but declining relatively creates fault line and decrease in political power in Canada
-how does this affect unity of Canada? Fault line b/w groups in Quebec; afraid of traditions slipping away
Aboriginal Peoples and Non-Aboriginal Majority
-Indian, Inuit, Metis; margins of society today b/c lost in economic wilderness; dependent on state; as a result in a state of
poverty and underdevelopment
-No change unless Indian Act; 615 First Nations all across Canada; diverse so different needs; thus hard to make this social
change; will take time
1) late 20th century doors to economic and social opportunities available to them; restricted to reserves, segregated them, access
to public serves and food but no economic foundation; not hunters with self-sustaining culture so relied on social assistance
2) 1960; can vote in federal elections; civil and human rights extended to them; residential schools up until late 20th century;
keep them in bottom rungs of society; loss of language and culture and connection to land and parents; didn’t fit anywhere
3) gain control of lands through modern land claims agreements and impact benefit agreements; some don’t have agreements in
place for their land
Newcomers and Old-Timers Interaction (creates a faultline)
-first European immigrants (British and some French) established the economic, political and social structure of Canada (old-
timers influence it too)
-hard for non anglo/fracophone speaking, 3rd world country ppl to adjust to political and structural facts; sense of belonging,
finding a job to support family

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-what is a secular state? A secular state and Charter of rights and Freedoms governing relationship b/w state and its citizens
-cross-cultural interactions creates faultline; requires adjustment and compromise
-old-comers don’t like to give ground, but CORF protects minority groups from tyranny of majority
-limits; honor killings and shariah law; show faces in votings and oath
-tempest in a teapot?
-What does disporic mean?
-Later generations adapt easier but get lost with their roots
Lecture 2: 17-26, 29-56 (Canada’s Physical Base)
Core/Periphery Theory
Staples thesis: explains the process of development in early stages of Canada’s industrialization pg. 17
-by Harold Inns in 1930 (economist)
-centre/margins concept and view of Canadian regional development important today
John Friedmann’s (1960) periphery regions; core region and 3 periphery region
1) Ontario and Quebec (manufacturing)
2) BC and Western Canada; fast growing based on expanding resource base
3) Atlantic Canada; slow growth based on declining resource base
4) Territorial North; resource frontier region where many resources but few available
Pg. 18 chart
The Global Economy
core/periphery theory, a product of capitalist world-systems theory (Wallerstein) based on assumption that prices for manufactured
goods increase faster over time than resources; industrial centres become richer in comparison to peripheries
-global economy created demand for energy and resources from industrializing countries; increase their prices
-producing manufactured goods at low labor cost brings cost of products down
-since industrial evolution manufactured goods prices were higher, but since world economy (China as super power),
supercycle reversing this; economic divide within Canada
-manufacturing provinces behind resource-rich western provinces economically b/w cant compete in low labor countries
(China); trying to reposition themselves but how?
super cycle theory: prices for resouces declined during 2008-9 crisis, but remained high due to demand from industrializing
countries; China, India- pg. 19
Canada in the Global World
-shift in federal poligicy; number of trade missions to China pg. 19
-number of major and minor trade agreements w/ other countries in recent years; European Union, Trans Pacific Partnership;
diversification of trade
-bring products to Asia market (agricultural proucts, energy, raw materials); high prices and demand
-trade dependency on US weakness since US not doing well either
-“beyond borders” w/ US to facilitate cross-border trade w/ them
-companies in transportation and financial sector trying to expand in US market
-natural gas and oil pipelines to Pacific coast
-First Nations and environmental organizations oppose Northern Gateway Pipelines
-Expland infrastructure to protect Canada’s Arctic sovereignty: claim large part of its seabed (lots of scientific investigation
there), increase its naval capacity there by committing money to build an Arctic navy including a polar icebreaker (mae in
Halifax and Vancouver boosting economy there)
-Canada in the world: Hosting Olympic games, G20, military involvement in Afghan., military spending
-Expensive purchases have raised questions (military) and withdrawn
-aboriginal conflicts, Indian Act, give aboriginals better life, break their dependency on Ottawa; Idle no more movement
(aboriginals want change)
Canada-US Trade Relations (strongest in the world)
1) topography has a north south orientation facilitation trade routes
2) exports to US market essential for Canadian industries to achieve scale and therefore, low per unit prices
-close ties in history
-87% to 75% from 2001 to 2010
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