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Chapter 4

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Geography 2153A/B
Jamie Baxter

CHAPTER 4: HUMAN POPULATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT -human population growth may be the environmental issue -THOMAS MALTHUS – argued in 1798 that the human ability to multiply far exceeded our ability to increase food production – unless people found a more humane solution to stabilizing their population, famine/disease/war would be inevitable because they would act to curb population growth -KARL MARX – argued that Malthus didn’t consider the socioeconomic conditions that placed people (especially poor people who placed themselves farther away from economic production); argued that distribution of economic resources (particularly access to property and other forms of capital) is at least as important in explaining the resource – population equation as overall population numbers FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN POPULATION CHANGE -historical growth of the human population is described in term of four major periods or stages: Stage 1: Hunters/Gatherers – total world population, population density, and average rate of growth were very low Stage 2: Early, Preindustrial Agriculture - beginning at the time of agricultural settlement; first major increase in the total world population; much greater density of people Stage 3: The Machine Age (Industrial Revolution) – rapid increase in the human population resulting from improvements in health care and food supplies Stage 4: The Modern Era - represents today’s increasingly urbanized world, rate of population growth has declined in wealthy, industrialized nations but has continued to rise rapidly in poorer developing countries POPULATION DYNAMICS -DEMOGRAPHY: scientific study of the characteristics and changes in the size and structure of human populations -changes in population sizes occur through births, deaths, immigration (arrivals from elsewhere), and emigration (individuals leaving to go elsewhere) -how rapidly a population grows depends on the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate - the difference is the CRUDE GROWTH RATE -CRUDE GROWTH RATE = CBR – CDR -CRUDE BIRTH RATE: the annual number of live births per 1000 population – the crude measure because it relates births to the total population without regard to the age or sex composition of the population -we can not make predictions about the future dynamics of our population by just using the crude growth rate -a measure of the rate of population increase (the ANNUAL GROWTH RATE): population change/population x 100 -the crude death rate is also called the mortality or death rate: the annual number of deaths per 1000 population -the crude growth rate of a population is the net change, or simply the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate -INFANT MORTALITY RATE: the ratio of deaths of infants under 12 months of age per 1000 live births DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION -DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION: key to understanding how human populations stabilize (four-five stages) -Pre-Industrial Stage 1: harsh living conditions gave ride to a high birth rate, to compensate for high infant mortality and a high death rate – which made very little population growth -Early Industrial (Transitioning) Stage 2: as a result of more reliable food and water supplies as well as improved health care – characterized as a decline in the death rate – birth rates remained high, so population growth was rapid -DEMOGRAPHIC TRAP: unable to break out of the second stage ^ -Industrial Stage 3: characterized by a declining birth rate that eventually approaches the newer, lower death rate – as it declines, population growth fluctuates based on economic conditions – the relatively low death rate, combined with the lower birth rate slows population growth in the third stage – reasons for the decline births include better birth control, job opportunities for women, declines in infant mortality, high cost of raising children, and better education -Post-Industrial Stage 4: birth rates decline even further to equal the low death rates – this stage th is subdivided into a 5 stage to represent those countries that have moved beyond manufacturing-based industries into service and information based industries in a process called DEINDUSTRIALIZATION – zero populati
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