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Chapter 7

Geography 2460F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Neoliberalism, Urban Density, Good Governance


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2460F/G
Professor
Godwin Arku
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Urban Problems and Responses in the Less
Developed Countries
Rapid urbanization in many less developed countries has created a host of problems for urban
residents and weakened the role of cities as engines of economic growth
Government involvement is important because this is the point where urban sustainability as a
concept overlaps with urban management as a practical process
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Close relationship between globalization and urbanization means that traditional patterns of
spatial organization are being transformed
Problems prevalent in megacities; growth informal sector for economic survival
During last decade or so four changes in urban governance that represent attempts to address
"globalization paradox"
1. Decentralization and formal government reforms
2. Participation of local communities in urban policy making and implementation
3. Multilevel governance and public-private partnerships
4. Process-oriented and area-based policies
Urban Problems
Poverty
Millions, especially in SS Africa and S Asia
Increasing becoming an urban phenomenon
Due to lack of education; bad health; degraded environmental resources; conflict and
mismanagement that waste public expenditures
In less developed countries, combination of internal and external factors influence economies of
cities and shapes labour markets
Growth is mainly driven by rural "push factors" rather than "pull factors"
Increase in natural increase
Widespread unemployment and underemployment
Through the new international division of labour, towns and cities in different parts of the less
developed world play a key, if often unequal, role in international economic flows that link
provincial centers into their national urban network and, ultimately, into the hierarchy of world
cities and the global economy
International investment has shifted to the larger urban centers, reinforcing existing investment
patterns and aggravating already serious problems of urban primacy and uneven development
Overurbanization has led to a large informal sector because people who cannot find regularly
paid work resort to earning a living in jobs that are not regulated by government
oDualism
Slums and squatter settlements
Four main kinds of informal sector activities attract different kinds of workers
oSubsistence activities
oSmall-scale producers and retailers
oPetty capitalists
oCriminal and socially undesirable activities
In many countries, labour force of unregulated informal sector includes world's most vulnerable
workers--women and children
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