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Chapter 2

History 2601E Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Zhang Xianzhong, Wu Sangui, Nurhaci

Course Code
HIS 2601E
James Flath

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Chapter 2 Notes - The Manchu Conquest (Spence)
- decline of the Ming, rise of the Qing
- the Manchus (originally tribes of Jurchen stock) lived in areas now known as Heilongjiang
and Jilin provinces
- Nurhaci ordered males to shave the fronts of their foreheads and braid their hair into long
- some Chinese held warm welcomes for Nurhaci and his troops, while others attempted to
poison the wells
- led to tension
- the Jurchen were allowed to bring weapons as a means of protection
- the Chinese were forbidden to do the same or else face consequences
- Nurhaci passed away with no one in particular to take his place
- his 8th son, Hong Taiji, was helped to power by Chinese advisors and therefore took
more of a favourable view with them
- Hong Taiji passed away suddenly, leaving brother (5 years old) in power
- Li Zichend led his army out of Peking and attacked General Wu Sangui (seen as the
last defender of the Ming)
- Li rallied the 5 year old's troop, the Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese in China
- Li enthroned the boy emperor in the Forbidden City
- the Manchus formally claim mandate to heaven to rule China
- Zhang Xianzhong was the second major rebel leader
- inflicted terrible punishments on anyone he believed was trying to betray him in
Sichuan province, including those in his army
- he was later killed by Manchu troops
- Li and Zhang deaths was essential to Manchu quest
- 1644 - the Manchus seized Peking
- 1662 - killed the last Ming claimants
- forced men to adopt Manchu hairstyle and women to practice footbinding
- the Qing avoided what the Ming dynasty had done, which was relying on the eunuchs
- in Juangsu, investigation ordered for 13 000+ wealthy Chinese declared delinquent in their
tax payments
- 18 publicly executed
- thousands deprived of their scholarly degrees
- early years of Qing dynasty, on several occasions when different economic and social
groups seem to have pitted against each other (after the Ming emperor's suicide)
- peasants killed their landlords
- homes of the wealthy were destroyed
- women emerged as military leaders, winning small moments of fame
- Qin Liangyu led her Sichuan troop to Peking to fight the Manchus, later fought
rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong
- in Jiangsu (lower Yangzi River province), China's richest and where educated scholar-
officials were concentrated in large numbers
- they were oppositions to Manchus ideology
- the Manchus do not look happily upon the well educated
- possibility of being overthrown by the educated
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