History 2601E Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Zhang Xianzhong, Wu Sangui, Nurhaci

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Published on 22 Nov 2011
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Chapter 2 Notes - The Manchu Conquest (Spence)
- decline of the Ming, rise of the Qing
- the Manchus (originally tribes of Jurchen stock) lived in areas now known as Heilongjiang
and Jilin provinces
- Nurhaci ordered males to shave the fronts of their foreheads and braid their hair into long
pigtails
- some Chinese held warm welcomes for Nurhaci and his troops, while others attempted to
poison the wells
- led to tension
- the Jurchen were allowed to bring weapons as a means of protection
- the Chinese were forbidden to do the same or else face consequences
- Nurhaci passed away with no one in particular to take his place
- his 8th son, Hong Taiji, was helped to power by Chinese advisors and therefore took
more of a favourable view with them
- Hong Taiji passed away suddenly, leaving brother (5 years old) in power
- Li Zichend led his army out of Peking and attacked General Wu Sangui (seen as the
last defender of the Ming)
- Li rallied the 5 year old's troop, the Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese in China
- Li enthroned the boy emperor in the Forbidden City
- the Manchus formally claim mandate to heaven to rule China
- Zhang Xianzhong was the second major rebel leader
- inflicted terrible punishments on anyone he believed was trying to betray him in
Sichuan province, including those in his army
- he was later killed by Manchu troops
- Li and Zhang deaths was essential to Manchu quest
- 1644 - the Manchus seized Peking
- 1662 - killed the last Ming claimants
- forced men to adopt Manchu hairstyle and women to practice footbinding
- the Qing avoided what the Ming dynasty had done, which was relying on the eunuchs
heavily
- in Juangsu, investigation ordered for 13 000+ wealthy Chinese declared delinquent in their
tax payments
- 18 publicly executed
- thousands deprived of their scholarly degrees
- early years of Qing dynasty, on several occasions when different economic and social
groups seem to have pitted against each other (after the Ming emperor's suicide)
- peasants killed their landlords
- homes of the wealthy were destroyed
- women emerged as military leaders, winning small moments of fame
- Qin Liangyu led her Sichuan troop to Peking to fight the Manchus, later fought
rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong
- in Jiangsu (lower Yangzi River province), China's richest and where educated scholar-
officials were concentrated in large numbers
- they were oppositions to Manchus ideology
- the Manchus do not look happily upon the well educated
- possibility of being overthrown by the educated
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Document Summary

Chapter 2 notes - the manchu conquest (spence) Decline of the ming, rise of the qing. The manchus (originally tribes of jurchen stock) lived in areas now known as heilongjiang and jilin provinces. Nurhaci ordered males to shave the fronts of their foreheads and braid their hair into long pigtails. Some chinese held warm welcomes for nurhaci and his troops, while others attempted to poison the wells. The jurchen were allowed to bring weapons as a means of protection. The chinese were forbidden to do the same or else face consequences. Nurhaci passed away with no one in particular to take his place. His 8th son, hong taiji, was helped to power by chinese advisors and therefore took more of a favourable view with them. Hong taiji passed away suddenly, leaving brother (5 years old) in power. Li zichend led his army out of peking and attacked general wu sangui (seen as the last defender of the ming)

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