History 2601E Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Geng Jimao, Geng Jingzhong, Shang Kexi

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22 Nov 2011
Spence - Chapter 3
"Kangxi's Consolidation"
The war of the three feudatories
- Kangxi faced tough problem of unifying China under Manchu control
- 3 feudatories = Wu Sangui, Shang Kexi, Geng Jimao
- Kangxi unsure what to do with the 3 feudatories
- Kexi and Jimao passed on land to sons upon death
- Wu unwilling to leave his base peacefully
- Geng Jingzhong (son of Geng Jimao) rebelled too
- threw off alliance with Qing - declaring formation of a new dynasty (Zhou)
- influenced people to be on his side by saying that he would restore Ming
- Wu passed away from dysentery, Geng and Shang were captured
- Kangxi almost lost his kingdom
Taiwan and Maritime China
- naval warrior Koxinga
- 1650's - his fleets fought the Manchus along China's east coast
- traded silks and luxury goods to supply for gun powder and other arteielly
- 1659 - frontal assault on Nanjing - defeated
- attacked Dutch fortress of Zeelandia (on Taiwan island)
- allowed them to retire to Batavia in Dutch East Indies
- took their goods and cash - ~$1 million worth
- Shi Lang (Koxinga's father's former admiral) planned campaign and won a victory in the
Pescadores over last Zheng forces
- 4 maritime customs offices set up: Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu
- failed to develop necessary mechanisms
- preferred to work through kickbacks or purchased monopolies
Wooing the intellectuals
- lack of support for Qing among Chinese because of:
- protracted resistance of Ming claimants
- support given to Koxinga and his descendants
- swift spread and near success of 3 Feudatories
- Kangxi believed in Confucius' thoughts in "Analects"
- powers of moral example and the central importance of education was absolute
- great powers of Chinese state lay in control of examination system
- Shunzhi revived this system
- Kangxi continued holding examinations (even during civil war period)
- 3 scholars stand out for their actions and writing
(A) Wang Fuzhi
- spent years with fugitive court of the prince of Gui
- attacked individualistic philosophy of followers of mid-Ming scholar Wang Yangming
- claimed that their insistence on finding the source of morality within individual
conscience had wrecked moral fiber of time
(B) Huang Zongxi
- fought for years alongside Ming claimants and built barricades in mountains to slow
advance of Manchu troops
- suggested alternative to overcentralization of the present laid in earlier ideal Chinese
society, which had be governed by moral force of scholars working as administrators in
their own communities
- believed that emperors should have less power
- political thinkers tend to think of ways of reforming behaviour of eunuchs
(C) Gu Yanwu
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