All chinese had to adapt the manchu hairstyle (shave heads, grow queue) except muslim population. To prove new reach into asia,, qianlong took a wealthy xinjiang muslim to be his concubines. She was allowed on trips with him. Buried in special tomb with passages of the koran craved in arabic on tomb. Wanted to preserve greatness of chinese culture. Ordered massive compilation of most famous literary and historical works. 4 main components: classics, history, philosophy, miscellaneous. One of greatest achievements of chinese bibliography. Served some functions of a literary inquisition b/c private libraries were searched and owning works considered to be slighting to manchus were strictly punished those. Believed that extreme individualism and belief in innate moral knowledge that been so popular in the late ming that it was the reason for the fall of the dynasty. Involved meticulous evaluation of data based on rigorous standards of precision. "hard facts" are roots of scholars" studies.