Textbook Notes (369,141)
Canada (162,412)
History (89)
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Canadian History Readings.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
History 2201E
Professor
Robert Wardhaugh

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1 Canadian History Readings Chapter 1: Confederation - Fear of annexation led to Canada becoming a nation in 1867 o After the Civil War, some Americans felt that they should annex the BNA colonies in retaliation to British sympathizing with the Confederacy o Said they would terminate the 1854 Reciprocity Agreement in 1866, which would eventually lead Canada to have to become part of the U.S. - Britain also wanted it’s colonies to begin to defend for themselves because it was becoming costly - British vessel Alabama burned or captured 64 northern merchant vessels - Trent, British steamer was stopped and two confederate envoys were removed, made Britain angry - St. Alban Raid o Confederates raided St. Alban, Vermont and fled to Canada after where they were released o Britain sent 14000 soldiers to stop this - Quebec conference o 72 resolutions were brought up  Gave powers to provincial governments - Maritimes didn’t want to be part of confederation because it didn’t benefit them - Voting in the new nation was restricted to males who owned property which in the 1870’s was only 20% of the population - More than 80% of the population in 1867 worked in farming, fishing and lumbering - The Maritimes were known for their shipbuilding but as steam ships replaced wooden ones, this industry declined and made them dislike confederation which was supposed to bring prosperity - In 1857, Canada only had three large cities: Montreal (105 000), Quebec City (60 000) and Toronto (50 000) - The population of Canada in 1867 was 3.5 million, 1% of this were first nations making them to many, a dying race that were stuck in the march of progress - The first nations were also seen as an inferior race, part of the “white man’s burden” to look after, the government wanted to assimilate them - In 1867, Canadians lived and worked on their farms - Women did not have the right to vote, legal rights or the right to higher education - Families were large: 7.8 kids per family but by the end of the 1800’s, 4 - Sex was for procreation, rather than enjoyment - Women were to keep a good home, they cooked, cleaned and cared for the children - In the 1860’s, the upper class felt it was a waste of time to educate the poor - As industrialization advanced, so to did the cause for universal education 2 Chapter 2: Three Oceans, One Country: 1867 - 1880 - Canada’s new conservative government buys Rupert’s Land for 300 000 pounds or 1.5 million dollars in 1869-1870 - Wanted to build a railway and a highway from Lake of the Woods to Fort Garry in the Red River Colony, leads to Red River Rebellion - Thomas Scott, member of the raiding party set out to gain control of the Red River Colony was captured and executed, very bad for Riel o Led the Metis resistance into a national crisis o Riel lost the support of Quebec - Manitoba Act created the province of Manitoba which Ontario retained much control over - Indian Act of 1876, regulated all aspects of first nations people’s lives o Defined them as special wards of the crown o Set out a universal governing structure for them o Used to help assimilate a ‘dying population’ - Amended in 1884, the Canadian government tried to outlaw cultural practices like the potlatch - BC – Canadian government wanted them under Canadian control, MacDonald’s dream of a united nation from sea to sea o Assumed the colony’s 1 million dollars of debt and promise to build a road from BC to the rest of the country o Joined confederation in 1871 - PEI, wealthy British absentee landowners held massive parts of PEI and didn’t want to give them up so Macdonald agrees to buy them out - Newfoundland was more sympathetic to Britain, many felt their destiny lay to Britain and the Atlantic ocean – economy was based on fishing and they traded with Britain and east India, not British North America - They also didn’t want to join because they had a favourable position in the colony, they had their own government funded schools which Protestant Ontario might threaten - P.E.I. didn’t want to join confederation mostly because the British absentee landlords didn’t want to give up their land claims to the government who would eventually give up these claims - Economic troubles in the Maritimes made confederation more appealing because the government would give them money to help them - Change in urbanization after 1867, decline of ship building in Maritimes, most people lived on farms, lots of manufacturing as well - Women did not have right to vote, to higher education and legal rights - First nations were dealt with treaties usually for land in return for goods for annual money - Manitoba Act created the province of Manitoba with its own legislative assembly but the federal government retained control of public lands and natural resources o Recognized both French and English as official languages o Separate protestant and catholic school systems 3 Chapter 3: A “National Policy”? - Liberals took power after conservatives were found guilty of taking 300 000 dollars in bribes – The Pacific Scandal - Alexander Mackenzie takes over but at this point the liberal party was very divided - Soon the liberals failed because they stopped building the transcontinental railway which upset BC - Macdonald came back in 1879 with the National Policy o High protective tariff o Completion of transcontinental railway o Settlement of the West through immigration - The conservatives argued that by creating the tariff, they would become less dependant on the U.S. and trade would move from east to west, not north to south - Many saw the tariff as only benefitting central Canada as the west and the Maritimes would be pitted against Ontario and Quebec - CPR is completed in 1885 after many years of costly construction - Time of great change and shift towards modernity o The invention of the telephone o The increased rapidness of communication led to the need for better timekeeping methods, led to standardized time which would change the labour industry forever - North West Mounted Police created in 1873 to help control the expansion in the west - Some said the high tariffs only benefited central Canadians because western Canadians had better trade ties down south in the States - Regardless the conservatives continued to build the railway even when they were at one point 22.5 million dollars in debt - The defeat at Duck Lake against Louis Riel in 1885 proved the need for the CPR and led to more funding for the project which ultimately saved the CPR - Next part of the National Policy was to settle the west - From 1896 to 1914, more than 1 million people immigrated to the west including Mennonites from the Ukraine, Jews and Icelanders for example - Some sought economic help and promise from the west as the Canadian government offered 165 acres of good farmland - Some like the Mennonites or the Hutties sought religious freedom - Clifford Sifton was a Manitoba politician, printed pamphlets about immigrating to the west, targeted western and eastern Europeans - There were desirable and undesirable immigrants, blacks and Asians were at the bottom, white, English speaking and protestant was the best Chapter 4: The Fragile Union - Provincial rights movement led by Oliver Mowat, the liberal premier of Ontario from 1876 to 1896 4 - Ontario boundary dispute, fought between Macdonald and Mowat and eventually taken to the privy council in London who agreed with Ontario and Mowat, undermined the government - Newfoundland continues to debate on joining confederation, always an issue based on the wellness of the fishing industry – major theme for the province - There was also discontent from the Maritimes and the Northwest - Northwest people felt that they were being neglected - Louis Riel comes back in 1884 and he tried to recreate his 1870 rebellion by creating a new government in Manitoba with him at the head but by this time he had alienated support from Quebec and the Cree chiefs who did not want to end up like their American counterparts such as Sitting Bull and the Sioux - Riel ended up being hung for treason, created rift between English and French Canadians - Mercier said that by hanging Riel, war had been declared on French Canadians - Manitoba and New Brunswick Schools Question o Systems that were decided to only be taught in English which upset the French Catholics o Immigration had turned Manitoba from “little Quebec” to “little Ontario” - The Election of 1898 o Manitoba School’s Question is a major issue in this election - Laurier – Greenway Compromise o Religious instruction in Manitoba would be allowed in public schools for a half an hour at the end of each day o If 10 or more students spoke French, they could be taught in English and French - Autonomy Bills o Created Saskatchewan and Alberta o Henri Bourassa and Charles Fitzpatrick made sure to include clauses to establish both catholic and protestant schools but Clifford Sifton opposed it and amended it so that the Catholics got limited concessions Chapter 5: Imperialism, Continentalism and Nationalism - Confederation was not meant to sever ties with Britain but as Germany started to challenge Britain, Canada’s passive role within the empire was redefined, Canada had to choose whether it continually wanted to be subject to British choices or their own - After the Civil War, America demanded compensation for Britain’s involvement in helping the south, America also didn’t renew the reciprocity agreement with Canada - Britain gave up many of Canada's interests to make the Americans happy like the Alaska Boundary Dispute and the given of free rights to sail the St. Lawrence 5 - Continentalism people like the liberals wanted reciprocity back but the conservatives felt this would lead to America taking over Canada - Imperialists felt that with Britain's protection they could become the heart of the British Empire, this was a form of nationalism - At the Queen’s diamond jubilee in 1898, the dominion leaders were taken to a shipyard and told that they may be called upon to contribute to imperial defence of Britain o Laurier knew this imperial question would threaten national unity back in Canada - Laurier compromised in the Boer War saying that he’ll send over 1000 volunteers that the British had to train and equip and they would be under British control - Alaska Boundary Dispute led to Britain siding with the Americans once more and Canadian interests were again ignored - Relations between America and Canada were poor now as a result of this dispute - Naval crisis o Naval Service Bill, 1910  Proposed that Canada was to construct five cruisers and six destroyers and a naval college to train sailors  Was called the tin-pot navy o Henry Bourassa and Quebec nationalists were against this because it went to far, would lead it to be used in more imperial wars - Robert Borden is elected in the 1911 Canadian election, conservative party prime minister - Borden creates the Naval Aid Bill in 1912 which would pay Britain 35 million dollars to build three dreadnaughts o The liberals complained and for the first time in Canadian legislative history, Borden demanded closure by cutting off the debate o The bill was defeated - Canada went into WWI unprepared Chapter 6: Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century - By the turn of the century, the National Policy was producing results o Mining, farming, fishing, lumbering were increasing industries o The CPR and other railways were bringing hundreds of thousands of immigrants out to the west - Canada had lots of natural resources and a growing population, made it ideal for foreign and internal investment - Canadian businesses adopted limited liability, people would invest and if the company failed, they would only lose their share and nothing more – made investments more popular - Schooling increased due to the increase in manufacturing jobs, they were taught mechanical skills for boys and domestic science for girls 6 - Immigration lead to immense population of the major centers in Canada, between 1890 and 1920, the population of Montreal and Toronto tripled while Vancouver’s increased twelvefold - Industrialization and urbanization took off during the early 20 century, led by the west and Quebec as the labour behind the movement and by Ontarians - The west became a popular place to settle in because of the massive amount of opportunities in mining, fishing and agriculture - With certain technological advancements like hydroelectric, there became many new job opportunities for manufacturing, etc. at this time (1911) Chapter 7: The Impact of Urban and Industrial Growth - Industrialization and urbanization changed the lives of Canadians - Rural areas saw young people move into cities to find work - Innovations like the hay mower, reapers and tractors, etc. led to farmer being able to exploit more land, farming became a business - First nations were seen as a dying race that Canadians had to help assimilate into the white population - Assimilation of these people had seem to take too long though, simply just left them alone most of the time and slowly replaced their jobs with immigrants - No longer did men and women work alongside each other, now the man was supposed to do the formal work, the breadwinner model is created – creates social inequalities that last even to this day - Women were to stay in the house to do house work after they were married - Life in industrial cities was poor, rent being 25% of a workers wages – 1905 – 1915 - Living conditions for workers in the cities were terrible, like living in a cesspool - Kids were forced to work, many only got to go to school until grade 3 - No regulation in factories, it was up to the factory owners to set the rules down - Health issues became a major problem of social reforms - Between 1850 and 1890, labour unions took shape in Canada - Soon after many new unions formed like the Knights of Labour which came up from America or the Provincial Workman’s Association - However even by 1911, less than one-tenth of the population were actually in these unions and couldn’t be protected - The unions were also divided at their core in many cases, leaders suspicious of each other Chapter 8: An Era of Social Reform: 1890 - 1914 - With the introduction of mass urbanization and industrialization came social reforms, one of these major reforms was to education - Industrialization was changed forever, Canadian lives revolved around the clock, not around daylight or the season 7 - Education was seen as the essential means to improving society by preparing children and giving them good morals - Changing social dynamic as the scientific community took control of sexuality, the family, the community away from the church and state through experts like social workers and psychiatrists – secularization - The need for reforms became too much for the churches or voluntary groups to handle - These reform movements led to raised public awareness about social injustices which in turn lead to more reforms such as the Ontario Workman’s Compensation Act in 1914, establishing financial benefits for individuals injured in the workforce - French Canadians believed that the family and the church were the best institutions to deal with social problems and not the state - Urban reform movement was spurred by the City Beautiful movements in America and Europe - Led to the conservation of certain areas of Canada like in Banff where a national park was created in 1885 and expanded to 675 km two years later - These would be the precursor to the 60’S+ movements towards environmental safety – main theme of this course! - Women were beginning to see the forces of change, changing their way of life, they tried to protect their social institution and relations - Unions of national women’s organizations were created like the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) in 1912 - Women didn’t see why recent male immigrants should get a vote while they pure Canadian long standing status did not - Women at this time however were after gender reform, not full equality – would come later on - Prohibition became a major social issue o Canadian Temperance Act of 1878 allowed local constituencies to decide whether their municipality would be “wet” or “dry” Chapter 9: Culture: 1867 - 1914 - Culture in 20 century Canada was ruled by the upper class who went to opera’s, etc. as they were more privileged - Painting took off at this time as well with the Toronto Seven being created during this time - Late 19 century, newspapers and technology took off which meant they could reach a broader audience now o These newspapers covered nationalism progress and democracy quite a lot - Sport also took off at this time as people began taking part in free time, etc. - The elite culture that had grown during the 19 century began to give way to popular culture 8 Chapter 10: Canada and the Great War - WWI was a watershed event in Canadian history - During the war the government intervened in the affairs of the state like never before - Most Canadians supported the war even Canadian imperialist Henri Bourassa - Internment camps were created to hold Germans, Ukrainians, etc. - As of 1914, Canada’s military only had 3000 permanent soldiers but by the end of war nearly 600 000 had gone across to fight - Lots of racism during this period o White mans war o Black men weren’t allowed to have a regiment until later in the war o Wouldn’t let natives partake in the war because they thought the Germans wouldn’t extend the same privileges if they were caught, etc. - By 1917 the Canadian forces were desperate for anybody to join the army so they lifted these restrictions - WWI was full of new technologies like tanks, airplanes, grenades and machine guns - First use of chemical warfare by the Germans - Because of the first World War, the state had to intervene in Canada’s economic, social and military like never before o Regulated production, distribution, sale and consumption of coal, wood and gas fuels - People at home suffered while the men across the ocean did as well - Women were important in the war, performed millions of hours of unpaid labour and as nurses on the front lines - Canada was with the British in the early on goings of the war and suffered great losses because of British high command failure which led to a Canadian Arthur Currie taking control of the Canadian forces for the first time - Borden asked for more say in Britain’s war policy and this was eventually granted under David Lloyd George in 1917, Canada for the first time had a say in Britain’s affairs - Ontario Schools Question o Irish Catholics didn’t want the French to have their own schools because it would undermine Canadian unity o In 1912, James Whitney came up with Regulation 17 which allowed French to be taught in schools for the first two years of elementary school o In 1913, he changed it to allow for French to be taught for one hour a day - Military Service Act became law in 1917 creating conscription o Farmers opposed because they didn’t want their sons going off to war o French Canadians opposed the war because they didn’t feel that Canada needed to help Britain in the war Chapter 11: Canada, 1919 – 1929: A Decade of Adjustment 9 - Aftermath of the war was called the Roaring Twenties but in reality it was a time of recession - Winnipeg General Strike o 1919, metalworkers and builder unions struck for better wages and improved working conditions o Pitted veterans against one another as to whose side they were on, the Canadian government hired some as special constables - William Lyon Mackenzie King succeeded Laurier as Liberal leader - Maritime Rights Movement o Called for increased federal subsidies o The Maritimes were struggling at this time economically and influentially in terms of confederation - 1921 – 1925 were difficult economically - The liberals lost a lot of support during this time and in the election of 1925, Meighan and the conservatives won a minority government - King asked Lord Byng to dissolve parliament and call an election but Byng refused and then asked Meighan to set up a new government o King-Byng Affair!! - Borden won Canada representation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1921 - Balfour Declaration o Declared Canada’s equality with Britain - Statute of Westminster o Prohibited the British parliament from declaring any law passed by the Canadian parliament as being unconstitutional o Continued to recognize Canada’s allegiance to Britain through common sovereign - In 1923, Canada traded more with the U.S. than with Britain for the first time ever - Economic boom in 1925, pulp and paper became Canada’s leading export - Women began having more options in the workplace and through education o 1920’s, U of T establishes a nursing program - Canadian popular culture became more Americanised in the 1920’s - First nations remained dominated by the federal government Chapter 12: Canada in the Great Depression - Black Tuesday – October 29 , 1929, New York stock market crashes - Leads to a decade of economic depression, young men have to ride rails to find work, ay resort to public relief - Industrial production in Canada fell by 1/3 from 1929 to 1932 - Canada was heavily dependent on the U.S. which sank their economy even further - The price of wheat fell from $1.29 to $0.34 for the best wheat in the country - Mackenzie King and the liberals said they would not give 5 cents to the provincial governments for unemployment purposes which sunk the liberals at this time, R. B. Bennett was re-elected 10 - Bennett institutes high tariffs which undermined Canada’s competitive edge because the U.S. came back with the Smoot-Hawley tariff in 1930 as retaliation - Many people had to go on relief or “pogey” which at the time became a sign of failure, many lost their sense of worth in society - Bennett introduced the Bank of Canada to centralize the banking industry and also to promote the economic and financial welfare of the dominion - Besides the liberals and the conservatives, now there were the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the prairies o Favoured government control of the economy through nationalization of the means of production, distribution and exchange as well as a more equal distribution of wealth - Canada was divided into have and have not provinces due to it’s federal structure - Maritime provinces had various troubles, started with the falling price of fish due to the depression - Then the governments there tried to establish public works, etc. and fell into more debt - Labour during this period was militant, led to many joining labour unions like the Worker’s Unity League building upon the movements in Russia - Women in the 30’s o Wages fell dramatically and working conditions deteriorated o Originally diminished wages was good because they got hired more but the idea of a sole breadwinner became more firmly established o Women were supposed to stay with the children at home as wives and mothers - First nations in the 30’s o Continued to be neglected - Religion continued to be important at this time, many in Quebec saw the depression as a punishment for their sins and many turned to religion to help them through this time of despair Chapter 13: Canada in World War II - Canada had been gaining autonomy over the interwar period from the Balfour Declaration and the Statute of Westminster - Canada was gaining autonomy as a result of isolationism from Europe, they were becoming a North American nation - WWII helped to get Canada out of the economic depression - Canada was becoming a modern welfare state led by King - Canada was also becoming more centralized, changing of the system that had left the provinces to fend for themselves o The provinces didn’t want to give up their power but it became necessary for them to survive - Adolf Hitler was gaining power in 1933, King visited him in 1937, found him to be a man of deep sincerity, a genuine patriot 11 - Canada did not want to enter WWII because they felt they wouldn’t have a big role in the fighting, why bother? - WWII was a war of limited liability, Canada would provide war materials to the Allies while trying to stay out of the actual fighting - Ogdensburg Agreement o Brought Canadian and American military interests together o Some say it gave up Canadian autonomy - Hyde Park Declaration o Coordinated continental military and economic relations during wartime o Let Britain off the hook for it’s debts and gave more money to Canada to support their economy through purchases of defense equipment - Women became heavily involved in WWII, by the end of the war over 50 000 had enrolled - Persecuted certain ethnic groups just like what had happened in WWI - Italians, Germans and Japanese Canadians were all put in internment camps - The Japanese were especially harshl
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