Textbook Notes (369,082)
Canada (162,376)
History (89)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - China and the Eighteenth-Century World

4 Pages
178 Views

Department
History
Course Code
History 2601E
Professor
James Flath

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
Spence - Chapter 6 "China and the Eighteenth-Century World" Managing the foreigners - Qing state had no Ministry of Foreign Affairs - relations with non-Chinese conducted by variety of bureaus and agencies, which implied or stated cultural inferiority and geographical marginality of foreigners (while also defending state against them) - Koreans came and mingled freely with Qing scholars - left vivid accounts of social and cultural life in Peking, and political attitudes of Confucian literati - Japanese ceased interaction during late Ming - refuse to acknowledge China's ritual superiority - China felt they were the "central" kingdom - felt other countries were under the power of China - Chinese made little attention to precise information or detailed study of foreign countries - Chinese described other nations as "exotic" or different - described in belittling language - those leaving China to trade or travel were seen as betraying China - Qing uninterested in potential governmental gains made from foreign trade - China reserved absolute right to regulate foreigners trading with China (from location and frequency to smallest details of personnel and goods involved) - Canton system - foreign management - attempt to control foreign trade and increase profits by regulating prices - formed monopolistic guild - "Cohong" - "combined merchant companies" - Hong merchants ordered to stand surety for foreign crews' good behaviour and for payment of transit dues - George Anson - flagship suffered severe storm damage - was presented with numerous administrative hurdles - was refused meeting Qing officials - messages unacknowledged for weeks - charged him outrageous prices for shoddy supplies - refused to allow him to make repairs he wanted - Anson published his alleged mistreatment - was widely circulated and translated - created an anti-Chinese feeling in Britain and in the West - East India Company sent James Flint (company trader who learned Chinese) to present complaints to Qing court concerning restrictions on trade in Canton - emperor appeared willing to talk at first, then changed his mind - had Flint arrested and imprisoned for 3 years for: (1) breaking Qing regulations against sailing to northern ports (2) improperly presenting petitions (3) learning Chinese - European trade restricted to one port - forbidden residence excepting during trading season Oct-Mar - had to deal with Hong merchants - Hong merchants write report for the Hoppo (court-appointed official) - 1770 - Westerners worried of trade deficits that forced hundreds of thousands of silver from them in exchange for silks, porcelain, teas - began to ship opium (grown in India) - passion for tea in Britain and America growing significantly - Lord George Macartney, sent by King George III, to show Chinese court of Western inventions - Lord refused to perform the kowtow - instead went down on 1 knee and bowed (and kissed emperor's hand) - asked Qing for: - British rights of diplomatic residence in Peking - ending of restrictive Canton trading system - opening of new ports for international commerce - fixing of fair and equitable tariffs - Qing refused - needed nothing from Britain Aliens and Chinese law - Lord Macartney got a hold of Qing's legal code - made clear as to what Chinese constitued "the law" - Chinese feared legal systems - heavy wooden pole used to beat confessions out of people - most consequences resulted in execution - "yamen runners" - magistrate's official staff supplemented their meager income with bribes to keep matters quiet - punishment for broken laws applied with filial piety - ex: punished more lighter if it's - father vs son/husband vs wife/older relative vs younger relative - punishments can be commuted for cash - legal system benefits the weathly - scholars who passed lower-level Confucian examinations were exempt from corporal punishment - "baojia" - Qing judicial structure received reinforcement from community mutual- responsbility system - all household supposed to be registered in "bao" and "jia" groups - supervised by "headman" chosen from numbers on a rotation system - headman was to enforce prompt tax payments - communities grew violent b/c no one wanted to serve as headman - all members given responsibility for good ord
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit