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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Western University
History 2601E
James Flath

Spence - Chapter 8 Social dislocation north and south - China's growing domestic instability was the cause and consequence of the damaging defeat inflicted from British - many elements of instability: - growing population putting pressure on land - outflow of silver - difficulty for educated elites to gain official employment - growing opium problem/addiction - decrease in regular banner armies - demoralization in bureaucracy caused by Heshan - wide-scale suffering that accompanied the spread and eventual suppression of White Lotus rebellion - bureaucracies managing Yellow River dike works and Grand Canal grew ineffective - using government money for their own private purpose - consequence: Grand Canal was silting up of stretches & failure to regulate water levels on Yellow and Huai rivers at the point where they cross the Grand Canal (crucially weakening the system of government rice transport from the south) - workers along canal pulled government barges for a living, many workers banded their own secret associations (to protect their jobs and to tyrannize the local farming communities) - massive government system of salt distribution - was once supervised by Qing officials - inefficiencies and corruption led to salt smuggling and personal trade systems - private interests were intruding onto governmental sphere - Lin Qing - travelled between north and south China, working various jobs - joined a religious sect, drawing beliefs from millenarian Buddhism - gave inspirational speeches and people donated money - made plans to move to Peking and kill Emperor Jiaqing - plot was unraveled, captured, head cut off and displayed in Henan as warning to his followers - the Triads - developed in Taiwan - aka Heaven and Earth Society - engaged in criminal activities while protecting themselves through society members in the magistrates' own yamens (office) - offered alternative form of protection and organizational focus for those living on edge of destitution (without basic necessities of life) - women would joined - gave them a prestige and function in society - claimed it was their cause to oust Qing and restore Ming - anti-Manchu stance fueled by inability of Qing to control foreigners in Canton and repeated occupations of city by foreign troops - encouraged formation of army to defend Canton against British - encounter was a symbol for possibility of united resistance to foreign pressures The Taiping - elements similar to the Triads - restlessness and religious self-identification of an individual (ex: Lin Qing) - underlying social discord in southeast - growing strength and variety of secret society organizations among the poor - dislocation caused by British and opium trade - Hong Xiuquan - passed the initial state examination but failed the licentiate's shengyuan degree (that would exempt him from physical punishment) - Western Protestant missionary handed him a tract (passages from the Bible) - had a dream and believed that he was God's son, younger brother to Jesus Christ - able to persuade people of spiritual powers through charismatic manner and strong religious conviction - ideology came from Christianity community and destruction of Manchus - 20 000 members - able to assemble drill troops, manufacture arms, military tables of organizations / women separated into a camp ran by female officers - Qing attempts to oust Hong but is defeated...60 000 members at this point - people gave up some things to have money to help contribute to the pool of funds - money held in a common treasury - Taiping land law - all land was to be divided among all families according to family size, with men and women receiving equal shares - allowed to keep produce
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