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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Taking Charge of Your Health .docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 1 - Taking Charge of Your Health What is Health? “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” – World Health Organization (WHO) 1948 “Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for every day life… Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities.” – WHO, 1986 (Ottawa Charter)  Doctors aren’t completely responsible for good health  Not just mentally, physically and socially well, but a resource that’s need to reach our goals  Not just for people that are sick What is Wellness?  An expanded idea of health  The ability to live life fully, with vitality and meaning  Largely determined by the decisions you make about how you live your life  Not a static goal but a dynamic process of change and growth  Encompasses 7 interrelated dimensions 7 Dimensions of Wellness 1. Physical 2. Interpersonal/Social 3. Mental/Intellectual 4. Occupational (added) 5. Emotional 6. Environmental 7. Spiritual *These 7 dimensions interact continuously, influencing and being influenced by one another - Constantly influencing each other and constantly changing 1.) Physical Wellness  Requires healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, getting regular check-ups, etc.  Influences quality of life* and how many years you will live  Health-Related of Life = a personal sense of physical and mental health. Requires a full range of functional capacity to enable people to work, play, maintain satisfying relationships  Social determinants come into play, things that we have control over  change of behaviour  Influences future choices 2.) Interpersonal/Social Wellness  Involves learning effective communication skills developing the capacity for intimacy, and cultivating a support network  Requires participating in and contributing to your community, country, and world 3.) Mental/Intellectual Wellness  Includes an openness to new ideas, a capacity to think critically and to learn new skills  The ability to process and use information is one of the most important aspects of wellness 4.) Occupation Wellness  A sense of personal satisfaction derived from career/career development  Involves attaining a work-life balance  Constant struggle  Most important part is to maintain that balance 5.) Emotional Wellness  Includes optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, an ability to share feels  Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles to emotional well-being and finding solutions to emotional problems  Most closely related to your feelings  The steps you need to take to overcome some emotional struggles 6.) Environmental Wellness  Personal health depends on the health of the planet (e.g. violence, pollution)  Requires learning about and protecting yourself against such hazards  Also involves taking action – doing what you can do to lower or eliminate these hazards  Directly influences our health 7.) Spiritual Wellness  Includes having a set of guiding beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose to one’s life  Involves the capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, altruism, and fulfillment  A resource for lowering personal stress  Some health professionals believe it is the core of wellness Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases Infections: communicable from one person to another  Tuberculosis, diphtheria, etc.  Common cold  HIV/AIDS, SARS, H1N1 Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time, cause in part (and sometimes) by lifestyle factors  Cancer  Heart disease  Stroke Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats Early 1900s:  Life expectancy = 58.8 years for Males, 60.6 years for Females  Health threats = infectious diseases (e.g. cholera, tuberculosis, pneumonia)  Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living in close quarters, etc.  Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other  Sources of infectious diseases soon discovered  Became easier to control spread of disease, public health became important  Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed western society to control the major causes of morbidity and mortality o Morbidity  illness or disease o Mortality  death  People were educated about sanitation and other public health measures were brought into play after the discovery of the sources, therefore, became easier  People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness  In some way, this belief holds true today  Faith in medical community In Canada:  Life expectancy (2005-2007) = 78 for Males, 83 for females  Health threats = chronic diseases (cancer, heath disease, stroke)  TOP THREE  Many risk factors falls within the realm of a person’s “lifestyle” Chronic Disease  The best course of action = prevention  Individual have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases  Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by: o Poor diet o Inactivity and alcohol use  Exceptions  someone who smokes regularly knowingly and lives a long life Life Expectancy in Canada  Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world  Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario  Life expectancy increases as: o Unemployment decreases o Level of education increases o Conc
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