Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Endurance Training, Blood Vessel

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Health Sci: Chapter 6
- When the body is left unchallenged, bones lose their density, joints stiffen, muscles
become weak, and cellular energy systems begin to degenerate. Humans must be
active.
What is Physical Fitness?
- The body’s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort:
to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly
tired.
- Health Related fitness include the following components:
Cardiorespiratory endurance
Muscular strength
Muscular endurance
Flexibility
Body composition
- Heather related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you
from disease.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
- The ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to
high intensities.
- Depends on factors like the lungs ability to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream, the
hearts capacity to pump blood, the ability of the nervous system and blood vessels
to regulate blood flow, and the body’s ability to use oxygen and process fuels for
exercise.
- Poor cardio endurance is linked to heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, stroke,
depression, and anxiety.
- Endurance training conditions the heart, making it stronger and improving the
entire cardiorespiratory system. Also improves the function of the body’s chemical
system.
- Causes:
Heart to pump more blood per heartbeat
Resting heart rate to slow and resting blood pressure to decrease
Blood volume increases
Blood supply to tissue improves
The body can cool itself better
- Less than 50% of kids take physical education after grade 9.
Muscular Strength
- The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
- Depends on the size of the muscle cells and the ability of nerves to activate muscle
cells.
- Older people tend to lose muscle mass (called sarcopenia), and many of the
remaining muscles become nonfunctional because they lose attachment to their
nervous system.
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Muscular Endurance
- The ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension to hold
muscle contraction for a long time or to contract a muscle over and over again.
- Depends of the size of the muscle cell, the ability of muscles to store fuel, ad the
blood supply to muscles.
Flexibility
- The ability to move joints through their full range of motion.
- Depends on joint structure, the length and elasticity of connective tissue, and
nervous system activity.
Body Composition
- Refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, water) in the body.;
the non-fat component of the body.
- A person with excessive body fat especially in the abdominal region is more
likely to experience health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure,
stroke, joint problems, diabetes, gallbladder disease, cancer, and back pain.
Skill Related Components of Fitness
- The ability to perform a specific sport or activity may depend on skill-related
fitness components including:
Speed: the ability to perform movement in a short time
Power: ability to exert force rapidly, combination of strength and speed
Agility: ability to change body’s position quickly and accurately
Balance: ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary
Coordination: ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly by
using body movements and the senses.
Reaction Time: ability to respond quickly to a stimulus
- Sport specific and developed through practice.
- Physical inactivity contributes to more than 21,000 premature deaths in Canada
each year and about $1.6 billion in direct costs
Physical Activity and Exercise For Heath and Fitness
- At all ages, Canadian males are more active than females, with less than half the
population being active enough to trigger health gains.
- Levels have decreased over the last 3 decades
- 88% of youth do not get the recommended amount of physical activity every day.
- Differences also exist among different ethnic groups when it comes to meeting
guidelines for moderate physical activity: White and Aboriginal people are most like
to be moderately active, while Black, West Asian and South Asian, and Arab people
are least likely to be sufficiently active.
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Physical Activity on a Continuum
- Physical activity = any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and
requiring energy. Can be based on a continuum depending on the amount of energy
they require.
- Exercise refers to a subset of physical activity planned, structured, repetitive
movement of the body intended specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness.
- Physical activity is essential to health and confers widely ranging health benefits,
but exercise is necessary to significantly improve physical fitness.
Increasing Physical Activity to Improve Health and Wellness
- In 1998, Health Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP)
launched Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living.
- Indicated that Canadians were unaware that physical inactivity is a serious risk
factor for premature death, chronic disease, and disability, with a magnitude of risk
and comparable risk of smoking.
- 2/3’s of Canadians were inactive.
- In 2011, CSEP related new guidelines with the support of the Public Health Agency
of Canada.
- 18-64 year olds recommended to do strength-training activities at least 2 days per
week, and moderate-intensity to vigorous aerobic activity more days per week. Each
session should be at least 10 minutes, and adults should have 150 minutes a week.
Increasing Physical Activity to Manage Weight
- Guidelines focusing on weight management have also been created
- Call for more daily physical activity than the guidelines designed for general health
promotion.
- Do not conflict with CSEP, but have different emphasis.
- They said 150 minutes a week might not be enough for some people, and 45-90
minutes a day is recommended.
Exercising to Improve Physical Fitness
- People can obtain even greater health and wellness benefits by increasing the
duration and intensity of physical activity.
(Chart on pg. 183)
How Much Physical Activity is Enough?
- Depends on the individual’s health status and goals.
- Other researchers suggest that people should exercise long enough and intensely
enough to improve their body’s capacity for exercise that is to improve physical
fitness.
The Benefits of Exercise
Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning
- During exercise, the cardiorespiratory system must work harder to meet the
body’s increased demand for oxygen. Regular endurance exercise improves the
functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardio system to carry oxygen to body
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Document Summary

When the body is left unchallenged, bones lose their density, joints stiffen, muscles become weak, and cellular energy systems begin to degenerate. The body"s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort: to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired. Health related fitness include the following components: Heather related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from disease. The ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high intensities. Poor cardio endurance is linked to heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, stroke, depression, and anxiety. Endurance training conditions the heart, making it stronger and improving the entire cardiorespiratory system. Also improves the function of the body"s chemical system. Heart to pump more blood per heartbeat. Resting heart rate to slow and resting blood pressure to decrease. Less than 50% of kids take physical education after grade 9.

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