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Chapter 2

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

4/19/2013 7:31:00 AM Defining psychological health  Psychological health our capacity to think, feel, and behave in ways that contribute to our ability to enjoy life and manage challenges  Encompasses the dimensions of health  Freedom from disorder is only one factor amongst many that determine weather or not you are psychologically healthy  Abraham Maslow (1960’s) “toward a psychology of being”  Hierarchy of needs: o 1. Self actualization o 2. Maintaining self-esteem o 3. Being loved o 4. Safety o 5. Psychological needs  deficiency needs= 2,3,4,5  Described an ideal of mental health  Advanced a hierarchy of needs in order of urgency o Psychological needs=most urgent  Those who make it to the top are self actualized  self actualization o maslow studied a group of people who seemed to be living at their fullest o stated that these people had reached self actualization that they have fulfilled much of their potential o self actualized individuals= psychologically healthy individuals o suggested that people who are self actualized share certain qualities: o 1. Realism  knowing the dif between what is real and what is want  allows them to cope with the world as it exists they know what they can and cannot change o 2. Acceptance  accepting themselves for who they are  positive self concept = self acceptance  self concept self image, positive perception of yourself  also means being tolerant of your own imperfections  this also makes it easier to accept the imperfections of others o 3. Autonomy  means you can direct yourself and act independently of your environment  social emotional physical and intellectual independence  autonomous people are inner directed finding guidance from within  other directed acting only in response to outside pressures, (ex. will say what they think will make others happy instead of what they actually feel) o 4. Authenticity  not afraid to be themselves  usually respong in genuine spontaneous way, almost childlike  not afraid to be judged o 5. Capacity for intimacy  physically and emotionally intimacy  not afraid to share feelings/thoughts  not afraid of getting hurt o 6. Creativity  no fear of the unknown  see the world in a new light every day  more open to new experiences o we should not dwell on the past o we should strive to complete our challenges but not consider ourselves failures if we do not accomplish them  can we reach self actualization? o An ideal to strive for o Cannot redo the past (ex. Childhood and past experiences) o People who are considered psychologically healthy are able to accomplish current challenges without clinging to the past  what psychological health is NOT  psychological health doesn’t = psychological normality (being close to average)  never seeking psychological health doesn’t mean you are healthy  cant say people are mentally healthy based on presence/absence of symptoms o ex. Anxiety, someone with anxiety can catch a problem quicker then someone who is super calm and will neve fine the problem so the person with anxiety in this situation would be considered more mentally healthy  cant judge psychological health from the way people look (someone who looks happy may be unhappy)  fun fact: 80% of people who intend to commit suicide make a comment to someone characteristics of a psychologically healthy individual  1. Feel comfortable about themselves o experience the full range of human emotions btu are not overcome by them  2. Interact well with others o are able to give and receive love, have satisfying relationships  3.able to meet the demands of life o respnding appropriately to problems, accepting responsibility  4. Striking a balance in all aspects of life  5. Resilience o the ability to recapture wellness within a reasonable time after encountering difficult situation meeting life’s challenges  fun fact: nearly 70% of canadiens report their health as excellent or very good  growing up psychologically  Eric Erkison: development happens in 8 stages (table 2.1 page 36)  Developing an adult identity o Unified sense of self o Who you are, what you are capable of, what role you play, your place among your peers o ability to form strong bonds with others while still maintaining a strong sense of self o identities evolve as we make choices in life o early identities usually modeled after out parents, sometime opposite (rebellious) o other time others are added to the list of role models o identity can be internal (viewing ourselves) and external (how the world sees us ex. the way we dress) o identity crisis when we feel we do not have a personal identity and we freak out  developing intimacy o being able to love and work o those who establish their own identity have an easier time developing relationships because they can accept others easier once they have accepted themselves o people who don’t have a firm sense of self feel overwhelmed by others getting close to them so they experience shorter, more superficial relationships  developing values and purpose o values criteria for judging what is good and what is bad o early childhood good= reward, bad=punishment o living according to values means:  considering your options carefully before making a choice  choosing between options without succumbing to outside pressure that oppose your values  making a choice and acting on it rather then doing nothing  striving for spiritual wellness  leads to longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease, faster recovery, improved emotional health  why does spirituality improve health? o Social support  Attending events like church provides people with a sence of community and support o Healthy habits  Some spiritual paths encourage healthy habits and discourage unhealthy habits o Positive attitude  Spirituality gives people a sense of meaning in life  Helps a better attitude which in tern helps with life’s challenges o Moments of relaxation  Prayer/meditation provides relaxation, moments to reflect  Reduces stress  Achieving healthy self esteem  Developing a positive self concept o Begins in childhood o Integration and integrated self concept is one that you have made for yourself o Stability depends on the integration of yourself + freedom from contradictions ( someone without stability could feel great one day and feel like dying the next)  Meeting challenges to self esteem o If you do not achieve something, the best thing to do is break down what happened and figure out how to do better o The bad thing to do is deny anything went wrong and blame someone else o This can prevent you from ever achieving your goal o The worst thing to do is blame yourself and become self hating o Avoid focusing on the negative  Don’t jump to conclusions/ start blaming  Be reasonable, give the benefit of the doubt  Avoid personalizing the situation  Cognitive distortions patterns of thinking that make events seem worse then they are o Develop realistic self talk  The statement you make to yourself in your own mind  Hardiness o Works with self esteem to ensure psychological health o Exists when a person consistently shows 3 important traits:  1. High level of commitment to something or someone  2. a sense of control  3. welcome challege  Being less defensive  Defense mechanisms (table 2.2 pg 41)  Drawback they make finding permanent solutions much harder  Defense mechanisms can become habits  Being optimistic  Pessimism o Symptom of depression o Expect repeated failure o Accept it as deserved o Martin Seligman explains that we aren’t so much effected b what others say about us, we are more effected by what we say to ourselves about ourselves and the only way to stop the negative attitude is to recognize how negative we are being and try to fix the problem  Fun fact: 15% of Canadian children and youth are effected by mental illness at any given time  Maintaining honest communication  some people know what they want, others do but are afraid to put it out there because of fear of rejection  assertiveness training learning to insist on your rights and bargain for what you want, being able to say yes/no  dealing with loneliness  if you discover how to be happy by yourself you will be happier with others  being alone can be interpereted as a sign of rejection  not everyone is going to like you in life, and that’s not a reason to put yourself down, its normal!  If your with someone just because your lonely you can lead youself into worse problems  Dealing with anger  Over hostile people at risk for heart attack  Coming out with your anger doesn’t help your wellness if it hurts other aspects of your life like relationsships or guilt doing more harm theb good  IED intermitten explosive disorder, often accompanied by depression or another disorder  Managing your own anger o Reframe analyse the situation and rethink o Distract ex. Count to 10 before you respond, leaves time to think about what your doing  Dealing with other peoples anger o If someone acts angrily try to contradict it by acting calm o DOES NOT MEAN APOLOGIZE, if youre not at fault don’t do it o Try to focus on solving the problem o If the person doesn’t calm down, just walk away Video: beyond the blues  What symptoms do youth suffering from depression experience?  Being numb to the world  Looking sad and unhappy  Withdrawn  Don’t enjoy things  Disturbances in eating and sleeping  Not wanting to get out of bed/go to school  Cant concentrate school grades drop  ¼ between ages 12-19 will suffer a depression episode  ***how to tell the difference between depression and a bad day: consistent and persistent change in the normal function  What types of challenges do youth with depression face?  The feeling of emptiness  Too tires and sad to do anything  Grades drop  Suicidal thoughts  Effects family  mom: am I a bad mother?  Anger, frustration  Emotionally reactive  How is depression treated? What has been shown to work? What hasn’t?  The girls self esteem corner  Antidepressants  celexa  3/15 studies of antidepressants showed that they worked, the rest were thought to be placebos  What makes it challenging to treat youth with depression in particular?  No blood test for depression so solely based on a pool of symptoms  Reminders ex. Girl kicked in her wall when she was mad and now it’s a reminder, she covers it with posters  Hard to catch it early  The person may not know and therefore would not seek help  Parents mistaken depression for slacking and “lay down the law”  General notes  Meds work for some people but for some people just talking it through helps more Psychological disorders  Fun fact: 12% of Canadians will experience an anxiety disorder in their lifetime  We all have irrational thoughts, but when those thoughts take over our minds, then there is a possibility of psychological disorder  Usually a result of genetics but how it works is still un
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