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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Health and Wellness.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter One – Health and Wellness What is health? - “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” WHO 1984 - “Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life... health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities.” WHO 1986 What is wellness? - An expanded idea of health - The ability to live life fully, with vitality and meaning - Largely determined by the decisions you make about how you live your life - Not a static goal but a process of change and growth - Encompasses 7 interrelated dimensions 7 dimensions of wellness 1. Physical 2. Interpersonal/social 3. Mental/intellectual 4. Occupational 5. Emotional 6. Environmental 7. Spiritual Physical wellness - Requires healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, getting regular check ups - Influences quality of life and how many years you will live - Health related quality of life = a personal sense of physical and mental health. Requires a full range of functional capacity to enable people to work, play and maintain satisfying relationships Interpersonal/social wellbeing - Involves learning effective communication skills, developing the capacity for intimacy, and cultivating a support network - Requires participating in and contributing to your community, country and world Mental/intellectual wellness - Includes an openness to new ideas, a capacity to think critically and to learn new skills - The ability to process and use information is one of the most important aspects of wellness Occupational wellness - A sense of personal satisfaction derived from career/career development - Involves attaining a work-influence Emotional wellness - Includes optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, an ability to show feelings - Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles to emotional well-being and finding solutions to emotional problems - Mostly closely related to your feelings Environmental wellness - Personal health depends on the health of the planet (ex. violence, pollution) - Requires learning about protecting yourself against such hazards - Also involves taking action- doing what you can to decrease or eliminate these hazards Spiritual Wellness - Includes having a set of guiding beliefs, principles, or values that give meaning and purpose to one‟s life - Involves the capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, altruism, and fulfillment - A resource for decreasing personal stress - Some health professionals believe it is the core of wellness Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases Infectious: communicable from one person another - Tuberculosis, diphtheria - Influenza - Common cold - HIV / AIDS, SARS, H1N1 Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time, caused in part (and sometimes) by lifestyle factors - Cancer - Heart disease - Stroke Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats Early 1900‟s: - Life expectancy = 58.8 years (males), 60.6 years (female) - Health threats = infectious diseases (e.g. cholera, tuberculosis, pneumonia) - Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living close quarters, etc... - Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other - Sources of infectious disease soon discovered - Became easier to control the spread of disease, public health became important - Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed Western society to control the major causes of morbidity and mortality - People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness (in some ways, this belief holds true today) In Canada: - Life expectancy (2005 -2007): Male = 28470 days, Female = 30295 days - Health threats = chronic diseases - Many risk factors fall within the realm of a person‟s “lifestyle” Chronic Diseases - The best course of action = prevention - Individuals have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases - Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by poor diet, inactivity and alcohol use. Life Expectancy in Canada - Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world - Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario Life expectancy increases as: - Unemployment decreases - Level of education increases - Concentration of immigrants increases Pan-Canada Healthy Living Strategy - Goal = decrease chronic diseases by addressing risk factors and social conditions that contribu
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