Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Junk Food, Insulin Resistance, American Diabetes Association

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
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Chapter Four Weight Management
Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle:
- Most weight problems are lifestyle problems
- Slow weight gain a major cause of overweight and obesity weight management is
important for everyone
- Early adulthood good time to adopt healthy behaviours
- Several lifestyle factors are critical for long term weight management
Research: Weight Gain in University:
Cornell University (2003) students put on an average of 15lbs between the time have they left
high school till the end of first year university
- Students gained roughly 4lbs during the first 3 months (11x the expected weight gain for
a typical 17-18 year old and 20x the expected weight gain for an average adult)
- Accounted for by all-you-can eat dining facilities, increase in the number of evening
snacks, increase in the number of weekend meals, increase in the consumption of junk
food
University of Guelph
- Suggested that freshman 15 is a myth
- Study included more than 100 first year women
- Women gained roughly 5lbs between the time they left high school and ended their first
year at university
- Still a cause for concern as women also increased BMI, body fat%, and waist
circumference
Thinking and Emotions:
- Low SE and negative emotions often accompany weight issues
- Internally held pictures of an „ideal self‟ often result of unrealistic goals and beliefs about
how we and others should be
- Challenge these beliefs and replace with realistic ones
- Involves setting realistic goals, engaging in positive self talk (and stopping negative self
talk) and problem solving
Coping Strategies:
- Food is often as coping mechanism
Healthier ways of coping include:
- Fostering communication skills
- Learning to manage interpersonal conflict
- Creating and maintaining healthy relationships
- Using food appropriately a fuel for life‟s activities
- Obtaining adequate amounts of sleep
Body Image and Self-Concept:
- Consists of perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes and emotions
- Developing and positive body image important for psychological wellness
- Individuals with negative body image
- Society and media tells us we should conform to “ideal” body images
- Average actress and model is thinner that 95% of female population and weighs 23% less
than average woman
- People easily become dissatisfied with their inability to achieve ideals
Example: The Real Truth About Beauty-Revisited:
- 4% described themselves as “beautiful”
- Only 11% of girls are comfortable using the word beautiful to describe themselves
- 72% of girls feel tremendous pressure to be beautiful
Body Image and Social Cues:
- SE and body image are influenced by social interaction through two processes:
1. Reflected Appraisal
- We see ourselves as others see us or as we think they do = perceived reactions
- Females tend to attach more importance to physical appearance than males
- Particularly influential are the reactions of “significant others”
2. Social Comparison
- Rating ourselves in relation to others
- Based on standards set by popular culture
Body Image: Acceptance and Change:
Can‟t change Heredity
- Body weight and body shape are both influenced by hereditary
Can change Lifestyle
- Individuals can engage in regular physical activity, obtain adequate nutrition, maintain
healthy eating habits
** body changes, as a result of the above behaviours will be natural and appropriate for your
genetic makeup
The Issue of Childhood Obesity:
- Canadian children have become progressively overweight and obese
- 31.5% of 5 to 17 year old children overweight (19.8%) or obese (11.7%) compared to
15% in 1978
- Linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, discrimination, and decrease in social well-
being
- ...”obesity is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, with up to 85% of affected children either
overweight or obese at diagnosis” (American Diabetes Association, 2000, pg. 382)
- Tracks to adulthood important to intervene during childhood

Document Summary

Slow weight gain a major cause of overweight and obesity weight management is important for everyone. Early adulthood good time to adopt healthy behaviours. Several lifestyle factors are critical for long term weight management. Cornell university (2003) students put on an average of 15lbs between the time have they left high school till the end of first year university. Students gained roughly 4lbs during the first 3 months (11x the expected weight gain for a typical 17-18 year old and 20x the expected weight gain for an average adult) Accounted for by all-you-can eat dining facilities, increase in the number of evening snacks, increase in the number of weekend meals, increase in the consumption of junk food. Suggested that freshman 15 is a myth. Study included more than 100 first year women. Women gained roughly 5lbs between the time they left high school and ended their first year at university.