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Chapter 5

HS chapter 5.docx

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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke

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NUTRITION BASICS  Nutritional habits determine your risk formajor chronic diseases  Process of knowing what to eat  1. Know which nutrients you need and how much  2. Translate that into a diet of foods you like Nutritional requirements: components of a healthy diet  Body requires  proteins  Fats  Carbs  Vitamins  Minerals  Water  ~ 50 essential nutrients  essential must get substances from food(essential because you body doesn’t produce them so you have to get them from food)  obtains nutrients during digestion  6 classes of essential nutrients  protein o function: Form important parts of muscles, bone, blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes; repair tissue; regulate water and acid-base balance; help in growth; supply energy o sources: Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk products, legumes, nuts o composed of amino acids o promotes growth and maintenance of body tissue o primary component of muscle and connective tissue o foods that contain < 9 essencial amino acids are incomplete proteins (vegitables, grains, lagumes, nuts) o they can be obtained using combinations of oncomplete protein sources (ex. Peanut butter and whole wheat bread) o consumption of protein with carbohydrates delays carb absorption and attenuates the body’s insulin response o proteins are more satiating then carbohydrates o dietary intakes within<15% of energy fom protein can esult in muscle loss  appears to be no difference in lean body mass gains between 15% and 25% protein diets o high-protein diets do not lead to weight loss  carbohydrates o function: Supply energy to cells in brain, nervous system, and blood; supply energy to muscles during exercise o sources: Grains (breads and cereals), fruits, vegetables, milk  fats o function: supply energy; insulate, support, and cushion organs; provide medium for absorption of fat soluble vitamins o sources: animal foods, grains, nuts, seeds, fish, vegetables  vitamins o function: promote (initiate or speed up) specific chemical reactions within cells o sources: abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains; also found in meat and dairy products  Minerals o Function: Help regulate body functions; aid in growth and maintenance of body tissues; act as catalysts for release of energy, act as structural elements in teeth and muscles, hemoglobin and hormones o Sources: found in most food groups o Inorganic micronutrients o Nearly 5% of the body is composed of minerals o Critical egulation of body processes o Macominerals major ones  Body needs 100mg/day  Exist in high amount  Ex. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, sodium, potassium, chloride  Calcium suppliments are taken if you cant have dairy or don’t eat a lot of vegetables o Trace minerals not a lot needed  Exists in small amounts in body tissues  Required in very small quantities but are essencial for good health o Safest way to prevent mineral difficiency is a balanced diet  Water o Function: makes up ~60% of body weight; provides medium for chemical reactions; transports chemicals; regulates temperature; removes waste products o Sources: fruit, vegetables, liquids o Used for almost all bodily functions o Used in digestion and absoption of food o Controls body temp o Functions in nearly all of the body’s chemical reactions o Water represent 80% of liquids taken in, the rest comes from food o 2004 food nutrition board  all fluids even containing caffine count towards beverage intake  men~13 cups a day  women~9 cups a day  Macronutrients nutrients that body needs in large amounts (proteins, fats, carbs)  Micronutrients nutrients required in smaller amounts (vitamins and minerals)  Broken down through process of digestion  Food broken down into compounds gastrointestinal tract can absorb   food broken down and chewed/,mixed with saliva  goes down esophagus to stomach  acids and other secretions break it down  most nutrients absorbed in small intestine aided by secretions from pancreas gallbladder and intestinal lining  large intestine reabsorbs access water  calories  energy in food expressed in kilocalories o 1 kilocalorie= amount of heat it takes to raise temp of 1L of water by 1 degree  person needs ~2000 Kc a day  people use the term calories instead 1Kc=1000 calories  of 6 essential nutrients, fat (9/g) protein (4/g) and carbs (4/g) provide energy  alcohol also provides energy (7/g)  people monitor calories because are body needs a minimum intake of calories but people always go over that  going over a bit is good but going to over causes the energy to be stored as access fat, so its not just fat that contributes to weight gain  proteins: basis of body structure  amino acids o building blocks of proteins o there’s 20 o 9 are essential, the others can be created by the body using other nutrient from food  complete and incomplete proteins o complete supply all essential amino acids in good amounts (eggs, milk, cheese…etc) o incomplete don’t supply all essential amino acids (legumes and nuts) o people used to think you need to eat a complimentary food with your protein in order to get the full nutrients not true though o 30% of protein comes from animals (meat/dairy)  fun fact: worldwide, 35% of childhood deaths and 11% of diseases are attributable to malnutrition  recommended protein intake o for adults  0.8 g/kg of fat o most people meet or exceed protein intake o high protein intake can strain kidneys o Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) says that protein intake should be 10%–35% of total daily caloric intake depending on age o average Canadian diet includes about 17% of total daily calories as protein  fats: essential in small amounts  types and sources of fats o usually includes glycerol with a fatty acid chain (triglyceride) o cushion for our internal organs o helps absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) o differences in fatty acid structure= different fats o can be unsaturated, monosaturated, polysaturated or saturated o leading source of saturated fat in Canada= red meat o something that is liquid at room temp is poly/monosaturated, if solid at room temp, saturated o saturated animal products like meat and chees o mono unsaturated from plants (oils) o polyunsaturated still from plants o transfat atypical shape  Hydrogenation o In saturated fats are kinked and therefore easier to break down o Hydrogenation means adding H ions in order to straighten out the unsaturated fat and turn it into a trans fatty acid o This means the molecules can get closer together and form stronger bonds o The stronger the bond the more solid it is at room temp o Extends the shelf life of foods  Fats and health o Cholesterol increases risk of heart disease  Saturated and trans fatty acids raise levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (bad cholesterol) in the blood  Unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL  Monounsaturated fats increase levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (good cholesterol) which is more beneficial to your heart health  Trans fatty caids can lower HDL  Saturated fats impair HDLs ability to prevent blood vessel inflammation and they reduce the ability for blood vessels to reacts normally to stress  3 negatives raise LDL, lower HDL, increase inflammation o omega 3s found in fish  They reduce the tendency of blood to clot  inhibit inflammation and abnormal heart rhythms  reduce blood pressure and risk of heart attack and stroke in some people  alphs-linoleic acid essential nutrient inside omega 3s and omega 6s  fun fact: 100g of atlantic salmon provides 2g of omega-3 fatty acids o too much fat in red meat can cause colon cancer o caloies from fat are more easily converted into body fat then proteins and carbs o fig. 5.3 fat chart pg 134  recommended fat intake o men 17 g/day of linoleic acid and 1.6 g/day of alpha-linolenic acid o women  12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linolenic acid. o takes 30–45 mL (2–3 tablespoons) of unsaturated fat per day recommended o acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR) recommendations on how to maintain good intake of essential nutrients and educing risk of disease o AMDR total fat= 20-35% of total calories, 5-10% omega 6, 0.6-1.2% omega 3 o Canadian adults consume 31% of their total diet in fat  Carbohydrates an ideal source of energy  Primarily supply energy to body cells  When we don’t eat enough, our body makes carbs out of proteins  In desperate moment, the body starts using our organs or protein sources  3 forms o monosaccharide glucose o disaccharides sucrose o polysaccharides starches  Simple/complex carbs o Simple sucrose, fructose, maltose, lactose (mono/disaccharides) o One is not more nutritious then the other o Complex starches and dietary fibre (polysaccharides) o Digestion  Body breaks down carbs into simple sugars in the small intestine and mouth  Once sugar is in the bloodstream pamceas releases insulin which allows cells to take up energy and use it to make energy  Live and muscles take it up and store it as glycogen  Refined carbs vs whole grains o Whole gain unrefined carbohydrates o Before theyre processed they look like this: o o during processing the bran and germ are often removed leaving the starchy endosperm o refining whole grains turns whole wheat into white flour and brown rice into white rice etc… o refined grains usually have the same amount of calories but less nutrients then the original ones o unrefined usually takes longer to digest and enters the blood stream slower which makes you feel full sooner and for longer o can help for diabetes management, high blood pressure, heart disease, etc… o fun fact: the average fibre intake of canadians are only about half of recommended levels  Glycemic index and glycemic response o Insulin and glucose levels can rise or fall depending on the food you eat o Glycemic index:  High GI rapid effect on blood-glucose levels  Low GI slow effect o Food rich in this increases your appitite a
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