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Chapter 6

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

EXERCISE AND HEALTH FITNESS What is physical fitness  Physical fitness the body’s ability to perform activities at different levels of intensity without getting overtired  Health related fitness includes:  Cariorespiratory endurance  Muscular strength  Muscular endurance  Flexibility  Body composition  Cardiorespiratory endurance  The ability to use your muscles at moderate to high intensity  Can vary depending on your bodily capacities  Then this type of fitness is low the heart has to wok harder during regular daily activities which can cause heart disease  Endurance training strengthens heart  As cardioresperatory endurance improves, so do other things o The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat. o Resting heart rate slows and resting blood pressure decreases. o Blood volume increases. o Blood supply to tissues improves. o The body can cool itself better.  Can be developed through activities involving large muscle groups (ex using legs to run)  Muscular strength  Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort  Depends on size of muscle cells and nervous system abilities to activate cells  Muscles helps keep skeleton in proper alignment  More muscles=faster metabolism and faster energy use= easier weight maintenance  Can be developed using weight training and resistance training  Muscular endurance  Muscular endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension  It depends on such factors as o the size of muscle cells o the ability of muscles to store fuel o the blood supply to muscles  important for injury prevention o ex. If abs cant hold spine up correctly increases chances of back pain o reduces strain  can be developed using weight training  flexibility  Flexibility is the ability to move joints through their full range of motion  depends on o joint structure o the length and elasticity of connective tissue o nervous system activity  inactivity causes stiff joints  can be developed by doing things like yoga or pilates/streching  body composition  Body composition refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body.  Involves greater portion of fat free mass and smaller portion of body fat for a given age/sex  To lose fat good diet and exercise  To gain muscle esistance training  Skill-related components to fitness (this ones additional to the 5, but the ones above are the main 5)  the ability to perform a particular sport or activity may depend on skill-related fitness components o Speed: the ability to perform a movement in a short time o Power: the ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed o Agility: the ability to change the body's position quickly and accurately o Balance: the ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary o Coordination: the ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly by using body movements and the senses o Reaction time: the ability to respond quickly to a stimulus  Is sport-specific  Developed through practice  Fun fact: Physical inactivity contributes to more than 21,000 premature deaths in Canada each year and about$1.6 billion in direct costs  Fun fact: Less than 50% of Canadian students take physical education classes after grade 9. Physical activity and exercise for health and fitness  Less then half the Canadian population is healthy enough to trigger health gains  Studies show physical activity helps boost  Concentration  Memory  School learning  88% of kids do not get recommended daily amount of exercise  80% of canadians between 12-19 aren’t meeting the requirements for optimal growth and development  physical activity on a continuum  Physical activity  any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy o There are different levels of intensity regarding physical activity  Exercise  refers to a subset of physical activity—planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body intended specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness o Depends on things like the hearts ability to pump blood and size of muscles o These factors are a function of genetics (the physical activity potential you’re born with) and behaviour (how much you do to improve your fitness)  Physical activity keeps you healthy and exercise improves physical activity  Fun fact: Only 12% of children in Canada get enough physical activity in a day to meet Canadian guidelines.  Increasing physical activity to improve health and wellness o Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) o Worked with health Canada in 1998 to launch ―Canada's Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living” o 2011 CSEP released new guidelines for Canadians 18-64  strength training 2x/week  aerobic physical activity, 10 min/activity, 150 min/week  moderate walking, biking  vigorous jogging, cross country skiing    Increasing physical activity to manage weight o 2/3 rdof canadians are overweight o for weightloss, 150 min/week may not be enough o they recommend 45-90 min/day  exercising to improve physical fitness o increased activity= greater QOL and reduction in disease risk o more vigorous activity needed o The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) also put out guidelines  How much physical activity is enough?  Depends on individuals health status and goals  Some is better then nothing, more is better then some  Any increase in physical activity will benefit you as long as it doesn’t result in injury Benefits of exercise  Been studied for more then 40 years  Found to be the most important action you can do for your health  Decrease impact of disease, increases energy levels, increases immune function, increases emotional wellbeing  Improved bone health  Regular weight bearing exercise improves the strength and density or bone o Implications for osteoporosis  Regular aerobic exercise builds strength of bones  Improved cardio resperatory functioning  Exercising works your heart out so that it functions more efficiently at a rested state  Directly effects arteries keeps them from stiffening or clogging with plaque  Leads to Improved sexual function and general vitality  More efficient metabolism  Someone more physically fit uses energy more efficiently therefore providing it to the metabolism more efficiently  Protects cells from damage using free radicals (destructive chemicals produced during normal metabolism)  Protects cells from inflammation  Protect against free radical damage o Produce during normal metabolic processes o Activates antioxidants (enzymes) that maintain the health of our body cells and prevent free radical dammage  Improved body composition  More fat-free mass  Hard to maintain because even healthy foods have calories and excess calories are stored as fat  Metabolic rate= rate at which body burns calories, so if metabolic rate increases, so does calorie burn  Weight training increases fat free mass tips the scale from fat to fat free  The more muscle mass the higher the metabolic rate  Greater activity levels are associated with lower death rates  Doesn’t eliminate helath risk of an overweight person but reduces them  Longetivity  Reduces risk of death regardless of body composition  People who exercise are less likely to die from all causes then sedentary people  Disease prevention and management  Cardiovascular disease o One of 6 major risk factors for CVD o Leading cause of death in Canada (second after cancer) o Physical inactivity increases risk by 50-240% o All linked with metabolic syndrome (a group of symptoms inc
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