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Chapter 1

Lecture 2 - Chapter 1 - Taking Charge of your Health.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 1: Taking Charge of your Health January 10, 2013 What is Health?  Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity o World Health Organization, 1948  A resource for every day life  A positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities o WHO, 1986 (Ottawa Charter)  Health is now focused on both the sick and the healthy What is Wellness?  An expanded idea of heath  The ability to live fully with vitality and meaning o Don’t have to be physically healthy to live a life full of vitality  Largely determined by the decisions you make about how you live your life o An individual construct  Not a static goal but a dynamic process of change and growth  Encompasses 7 interrelated dimensions that continuously interact and influence one another The 7 Dimensions of Wellness 1) Physical  Requires healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, getting regular check-ups etc.  Influences quality of life and how many years you will live  Medical community still attributes physical health as the most important dimension  Health-Related Quality of Life: o A personal sense of physical and mental health o Requires a full range of functional capacity to enable people to work, play and maintain satisfying relationships 2) Interpersonal/Social  Involves learning effective communication skills, developing the capacity for intimacy and cultivating a support network  Requires participating in and contributing to your community, country and world 3) Mental/Intellectual  Includes an openness to new ideas, a capacity to think critically and to learn new skills  The ability to process and use information is one of the most important aspects of wellness  Thinking outside one’s comfort zone 4) Occupational  A sense of personal satisfaction derived from career/career development  Involves attaining a work-life balance 5) Emotional  Includes optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control and an ability to share feelings  Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles to emotional well-being, and finding solution to emotional problems o Self analysis and self reflection are required but are difficult for some people  Most closely related to your feelings 6) Environmental  Personal health depends on the health of the planet (e.g. violence, pollution)  Requires learning about and protecting yourself against such hazards  Also involved taking action- doing what you can to decrease or eliminate these hazards 7) Spiritual  Includes having a set of guiding beliefs, principles or values that give meaning and purpose to one’s life o Not always an organized religion  Involves the capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, altruism, and fulfillment Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases  Both have factors we can control and other factors we cannot o i.e. Chronic – you can’t control your genes  Are affected by both the PDH and the SDH Infectious: communicable from one person to another  Tuberculoses, diptheria etc.  Common cold  HIV/AIDS, SARS, H1N1  Influenza Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time, caused in part (and sometimes) by lifestyle factors  Cancer  Heart Disease  Stroke Course of Action: Prevention  Individuals have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases  Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death follow by: o Poor diet o Inactivity o Alcohol use Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats Early 1900s  Life Expectancy o Males: 58.8 o Females: 60.6  Health Threats  infectious diseases o Cholera o Tuberculosis o Pneumonia  Diseases spread due to: o Lack of clean water o Poor sewage removal o Living in close quarters o Unsanitary food preparation o Growing trade between countries moved diseases form one country to another Changes in Health  Sources of infectious diseases soon discovered  Became easier to control the spread of disease  Public health became important o Education about importance of hygiene and proper food preparation o Clean water sanitation centers were introduced  Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed Western society to control the major cause of morbidity and mortality o Morbidity  illness or disease o Mortality  death  Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin o Left bacteria in a Petri dish and found mould grew o Around the mould there was a bacteria free zone  Mould was somehow preventing bacteria growth  People began to expect modern medicine could conquer any illness o Somewhat holds true today In Canada  Life Expectancy o Men: 28,740 days (78 yrs) o Women: 30,295 days (83 yrs) o Among the highest in the world o Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario o Health Immigrant Effect: those who immigrate tend to be healthier when they initially move to Canada but this decreases with future generation  Can also be because those who are selected to immigrate tend to be healthy  Health threats  chronic diseases o Cancer o Heart disease o Stroke  Many risk factors fall within the realm of a person’s lifestyle Pan-Canadian Health Living Strategy  Goal: to decrease chronic diseases by addressing risk factors and societal conditions that contribute to them  Not as much action and not a lot of funds being put into these initiatives  Interesting research stating that obese people can in some sense be more healthy Population Health Approach  Considers personal behaviour and social, economic and environmental influences on lifestyle choices  Emphasizes health eating, physical activity and health weights Science versus Health Promotion  Science is full of “ifs”, “buts” and “maybes”  Messages designed to influence behaviour must be clean and unequivocal o Always an excuse for someone to participate in risky behaviours guilt free  Scientific proof of cause-and-effect relationships between lifestyle and illness/death fraught with disagreement o Easy for those who abuse health to find “scientific” excuse  Many health problems require action now – must use available information to take action o Sometimes difficult to sift through information and find the true facts o High correlation but not many cause and effect How do you Reach Wellness  Examine your current health behaviours o Behaviour change is a huge a
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