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Shauna Burke (133)
Chapter 1

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 1 (cont‟d) Slide: Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases - Infectious: communicable from one person to another  Tuberculosis, diptheria, etc. (Tb affects the lungs, diphtheria affects the nose and throat)  Common cold  HIV/AIDS, SARS, H1N1 - Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time, often caused by lifestyle factors (genetics, environment, family history, and lifestyle factors and choices we make in our lives can cause these diseases)  Cancer  Heart Disease  Stroke Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats - Early 1900s: • Life expectancy = 58.8(M), 60.6(F) • Health threats = infectious diseases (e.g., cholera, tuberculosis, pneumonia) • Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living in close quarters, etc. • Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other (still happens today, through travel and movement between countries) Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats - Sources of infectious diseases soon discovered - Became easier to control spread of disease, public health became important (clean, purified water is an example) - Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed Western society to control the major causes of morbidity and mortality (ex. The accidental discovery of penicillin, from mold, before World War 2 and it was crucial for these diseases), Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin - Morbidity Illness or disease - Mortality Death Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats - People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness - In some ways, this belief holds true today In Canada: - Life expectancy (2005-2007): M = 78 yrs, F = 83 yrs - Health threats = chronic diseases (cancer, heart disease, stroke), particularly in westernized society, chronic diseases have many risk factors - Many risk factors fall within the realm of a person’s “lifestyle” - Even though we do have a longer life expectancy, does not mean we are healthier, it does mean that many people life longer with diseases, in the 1900s many people died before they could GET a chronic disease Slide: Chronic Diseases - The best course of action = prevention (how can we prevent people from becoming ill, but for many years people were focusing on the treatment, but now people realize that it is more important to try to prevent it before it happens so more money is now put towards it) - Individuals have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases - Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by poor diet, inactivity, and alcohol use - It is not up to modern medicine to fix everything for us even though many people do have this mentality Slide: Life Expectancy in Canada - Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world - Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario - Life expectancy increases as:  Unemployment rates are lower  Level of education is higher  (both of the above are part of social determinance) Statistics Canada, 1999 Slide: Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy - Goal = reduce chronic diseases by addressing risk factors and societal conditions that contribute to them - Population health approach (not individual factors but society as a whole) - Considers personal behaviour AND… - Social, economic, and environmental influences on lifestyle choices - Emphasizes healthy eating, physical activity, healthy weights (also uses social marketing campaigns which attempt to sell an idea, this coalition always try to sell the idea of physical activity and healthy eating, etc.) Slide: Science versus Health Promotion - Science full of “ifs”, “buts”, “maybes” - Messages designed to influence behaviour must be clear and unequivocal - Scientific proof of cause-and-effect relationships between lifestyle and illness/death fraught with disagreement - easy for those who abuse health to find ‘scientific’ excuse - Many health problems require action NOW-- must use available information to take action Lalonde (1974) Slide: How Do You Reach Wellness? - Examine your current health behaviours - Choose a target behavior - Obtain accurate information about your target behaviour  Important for setting goals  Important that one uses credible sources instead of getting information from non credible people) - Find outside help* (many cases we cannot do things on our own therefore we find people wo can help us) Slide: What Health Behaviours/Health Goals Do Students Often Strive For?  Gain or lose weight  Stop smoking  Eliminate or reduce caffeine consumption  Develop better sleeping patterns  Reducing stress levels  Physical fitness/exercise behaviour  Reducing alcohol consumption  Eat more nutritiously  Develop more friendships Slide: Why Behaviour Change is Difficult Individuals must: 1. Know that a behaviour is associated with (or causes) a health problem (have t know that it is a problem) (e.g. smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer) 2. Believe and accept that the behaviour makes them susceptible to this health problem (individual has to internalize and believe that it is a problem) (e.g. smoking will increase my risk of developing ling cancer) 3. Recognize that risk-reduction strategies exist that can decrease their risk for the health problem (e.g. smoking cessation programs exist, and following this program could help me quit) 4. Be
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