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Chapter 1

Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Smoking Cessation, Anomie Belle, Penicillin

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 1 (cont‟d)
Slide: Infectious vs. Chronic Diseases
- Infectious: communicable from one person to another
Tuberculosis, diptheria, etc. (Tb affects the lungs, diphtheria affects the nose and throat)
Common cold
- Chronic: develop and become worse over a period of time, often caused by lifestyle factors
(genetics, environment, family history, and lifestyle factors and choices we make in our lives can
cause these diseases)
Heart Disease
Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
- Early 1900s:
Life expectancy = 58.8(M), 60.6(F)
Health threats = infectious diseases (e.g., cholera, tuberculosis, pneumonia)
Spread due to lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living in close quarters, etc.
Growing trade between countries moved diseases from one to the other (still happens
today, through travel and movement between countries)
Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
- Sources of infectious diseases soon discovered
- Became easier to control spread of disease, public health became important (clean, purified
water is an example)
- Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed Western society to control the
major causes of morbidity and mortality (ex. The accidental discovery of penicillin, from mold,
before World War 2 and it was crucial for these diseases), Sir Alexander Fleming discovered
- Morbidity Illness or disease
- Mortality Death
Slide: Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
- People began to expect that modern medicine could conquer any illness
- In some ways, this belief holds true today
In Canada:
- Life expectancy (2005-2007): M = 78 yrs, F = 83 yrs
- Health threats = chronic diseases (cancer, heart disease, stroke), particularly in westernized
society, chronic diseases have many risk factors
- Many risk factors fall within the realm of a person’s “lifestyle”
- Even though we do have a longer life expectancy, does not mean we are healthier, it does mean
that many people life longer with diseases, in the 1900s many people died before they could
GET a chronic disease

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Slide: Chronic Diseases
- The best course of action = prevention (how can we prevent people from becoming ill, but for
many years people were focusing on the treatment, but now people realize that it is more
important to try to prevent it before it happens so more money is now put towards it)
- Individuals have some control over whether they develop certain chronic diseases
- Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by poor diet, inactivity, and alcohol
- It is not up to modern medicine to fix everything for us even though many people do have this
Slide: Life Expectancy in Canada
- Life expectancy in Canada is among the highest in the world
- Most health regions with higher life expectancy are in and west of Ontario
- Life expectancy increases as:
Unemployment rates are lower
Level of education is higher
(both of the above are part of social determinance)
Statistics Canada, 1999
Slide: Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy
- Goal = reduce chronic diseases by addressing risk factors and societal conditions that contribute
to them
- Population health approach (not individual factors but society as a whole)
- Considers personal behaviour AND…
- Social, economic, and environmental influences on lifestyle choices
- Emphasizes healthy eating, physical activity, healthy weights (also uses social marketing
campaigns which attempt to sell an idea, this coalition always try to sell the idea of physical
activity and healthy eating, etc.)
Slide: Science versus Health Promotion
- Science full of “ifs”, “buts”, “maybes”
- Messages designed to influence behaviour must be clear and unequivocal
- Scientific proof of cause-and-effect relationships between lifestyle and illness/death fraught
with disagreement
- easy for those who abuse health to find ‘scientific’ excuse
- Many health problems require action NOW-- must use available information to take action
Lalonde (1974)
Slide: How Do You Reach Wellness?
- Examine your current health behaviours
- Choose a target behavior
- Obtain accurate information about your target behaviour
Important for setting goals
Important that one uses credible sources instead of getting information from non
credible people)
- Find outside help* (many cases we cannot do things on our own therefore we find people wo
can help us)
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