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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 on Cancer, and Breast Cancer Notes

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Bert Carron

White 1 .,.m, m, ,Breast Cancer Lecture  Cancer is the main cause of early death in young adult women OPHS Foundations Principles  Almost 2/3 of young adult cancers occur in young women, of these mostly breast cancer 1) Need 2) Impact  There are relatively scant data to support either 3) Capacity an environmental causation or an inherited 4) Partnership predisposition to caner in this age group  At present, most cancer in this age group appears to be sporadic and random (NCI, 2007) Need: “if the incidence of a cancer is very low in the general population or in a demographic group (young  Need to be aware, know their, bodies, know women with breast cancer) they are often mis- their breasts, understand their risk and seek diagnosed or ignored” (CCS) appropriate medical attention  Delays and diagnosis and treatment can be  Closing the Gap: A Strategic Plan AYA reduced by seeking regular and prompt medical (Adolescence & Young Adults) Progress Review care, especially if AYAs are aware of unusual Group (LAF, 2006) – first real research because changes to their skin, breasts, or testes of gaps from research, to education, to  Little known about the risk factors for many of treatment etc. the leading cancers  400 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Ontario Delays in Diagnosis  Breastfeeding can decrease chances of cancer  Physician reluctance  Staying physically active decreases chances of  AYA’s lack of initiative cancer development  Improving early detection, YAYs must know the  Not being overweight as well as underweight symptoms of cancer, and must be able to notice  Don’t smoke them and take action  Assume young, no chance Symptoms  Swelling/inflammation Shan  Nipple change (i.e. discharge)  Pain in the sternum  Pain in areas around the breast  Misdiagnosed by multiple doctors, by the time it was noticed, it had spread to her ribs, back,  Luml.ps in the neck, breast, abdomen  Abnormal pigmented skin lesions and liver  Lost at age 24 Missed Statistics  CD by AYA  University athletes misdiagnosed (football guy,  15-39 years of age soccer girl)  Close to 7000 adolescents and young  Adolescents often find they are immune to adults (AYAs) are diagnosed with cancer cancer, lack of effort to get checked in Canada each year  Close to 400 young women diagnosed  Treatment is readily available its whether or not the initiative to get checked is there with breast cancer in Ontario each year  In constant denial  Close to______ young women  Death is often associated with cancer diagnosed with breast cancer in Canada each year  Misdiagnosis is very common and can lead to  Incidence of cancer in this age group progression of cancer and less likely for treating  People with cancer often feel like they are lone increased steadily during the past and everyone is afraid to talk to them about quarter century  Survival improvement rents portend a cancer worse prognosis today than 25 years ago In the Young White 2  Incidence of metastatic breast cancer in  Messaging young women is increasing  Facts, risk factors, symptoms, self help  1/9 Canadian women will face it  Brochure, poster, bookmark, shower card  Radio, television Literature Reviews Conclusions  Bus displays/shelters, billboards  Improving early detection can assist in reducing  Facebook, twitter deaths Evaluation  To improve early detection the population must  Results be aware of signs and symptoms to self-detect  Young women understood their cancer  more effective than mammography for risk and appreciated not being left out women under 40 of breast cancer messaging  They have recommended more  Be empowering and positive when promoting  Include risk factor info education and awareness Social Marketing: Health related social marketing is… Chapter 8: Cancer – Abnormal, uncontrolled “the systematic application of marketing concepts and multiplication cells that can ultimately cause death techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals, to improve health and reduce health inequalities” (French,  2 leading cause of death Blair-Stevens, 2006)  In Canada, responsible for ¼ deaths, claiming 73,500 lives annually OPHS Capacity  Leading cause of disease related death for those •  __________ under 65 – grants, donations and fundraising (annual events) •  __________________________  Tobacco use responsible for 30% cancer deaths – steering committee, board members, advisory group  Poor diet/exercise for 22% and broader network Tumours (neoplasm) – mass of tissue that serve no – graphic artist, epidemiologist, research consultant physiological purpose  Benign – noncancerous; made of cells similar to surrounding normal cells and enclosed in OPHS Partnerships & Collaboration membrane that prevents them from penetrating neighbouring tissues; only •  host organization •  public health dangerous if interfere •  school boards  Malignant – cancerous; invade surrounding structures; can spread to distant sites; cells •  high schools divide without regard for normal control •  colleges and universities •  community mechanisms Metastasis – spread of cancer cells from one part of the Team Shan body to another ______________________________  Cancer cells don’t stick to eachother as well  Public awareness campaigns including media & marketing strategies, print material distribution,  Tumour recruits normal cells as envoys to travel presentations and sporting events to different parts of the body  Envoys create proteins that attract the free-  Awareness & Education Activities floating cancer cells and cause a new site of  High school, post secondary class and assembly presentations and sporting replication – metastasizing events  To control cancer every cancer cell must be removed  prediction of outcome through  Print material distribution counting lymph nodes affected  THEME: Breast Cancer… not just a disease of older women White 3 Stages of Cancer  Radiation and chemo used in addition to  0 – early, only present at origin surgery  I, II, III – greater tumour size; in nearby lymph  5 year survival rate is 15% nodes or organs adjacent to origin  IV – advanced cancer that has spread to Colon and Rectal Cancer another organ  3 most common in Canada  More than ½ cases people 70+ Types of Cancer  Can arise from polyps (usually harmless mass of  Carcinomas tissue projecting from inner surface of colon)  Arise from epithelia, tissues that cover  Risk factors  heredity, age, alcohol use, external body surfaces, line internal smoking, obesity, high red meat intake, regular cavities use of painkillers  Most common  Warning signs  bleeding of the rectum,  Skin, breast, uterus, prostate, lungs, GIT change in bowel habits  Sarcomas  Regular screening tests for those 50+  Arise from connective/fibrous tissue  Surgery, chemo, radiation  Muscle, bone, cartilage  5 year survival rate 61% men 62% women  Lymphomas  Cancer of lymph nodes Breast Cancer  Leukemias  Most common cancer in women  Cancer of blood and blood forming  1/28 will die from disease in Canada cells, which reside in bone marrow  About 5400 will die from it in next year  Women’s risk doubles every 5 years from 30-45 Oncologist – tumour specialist Hematologist – blood disorder specialist i.e.  More than 75% in women over 50  Risk factors  genetics, early menstruation, leukemia/lymphoma late menopause, no children, obesity, alcohol Remission – period in which there are no symptoms or use, any factor in
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