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Chapter 15

Chapter 15: Alcohol

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 15: Alcohol 1 Nature ofAlcohol: • alcohol: intoxicating ingredient in fermented or distilled beverages; colourless, pungent liquid - ethyl alcohol; ethanol=main ingredient; anything about 1.1% - beer: 3-6% - ales/liquors: 6-8% - wine: fermentation- sugars from fruit react w/ yeast - > ethanol; 9-14% - hard liquor: 35-50% • one drink: contains 13.6 g of alcohol • 7 cal/g, 100-120 cals (14-17 g drink) • ingested - > 20% absorbed from blood stream - > stomach; 75% from upper small intestine • metabolism: chemical transformation of food & other substances in body into energy & waste - aldehyde - > acetate - > fat - excreted: 2-10% unchanged by liver, kidneys, sweat glands - readily enters brain: chronic=lasting disruption of brain function/structure Alcohol Intake & Blood Alcohol Concentration: • BAC: amount of alcohol in blood in terms of weight/volume; used as measure for intoxication - body weight: small > large - percent body fat: fat > muscle - sex: women (hormonal changes) > men (enzyme=4x as active) - alcohol metabolism: asleep=awake Immediate Effects ofAlcohol: • Low concentrations: BAC first felt=0.03-0.05% - > lightheadedness, relaxation, release of inhibitions, mild euphoria, more sociable • Higher concentrations: interference w/ motor coordination, verbal performance, intellectual functions; 0.1%=sleepy, senses reduced, 0.2%=psychological/physical functioning; 0.35% +=fatal - sexual response: small conc.=decrease anxiety, high conc.=erectile dysfunction Chapter 15: Alcohol 2 - cause blood vessels near skin to dilate=warm feeling; flushing/sweating - > heat loss (internal body temp calls) - disturb normal sleep patterns, worsen sleep apnea (breathing disorder, air passage at back of mouth narrows/closes) - compromise memory, response time, ability to perform difficult tasks • Hangover: headache, shakiness, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, impaired mental functioning - caused by: combo of toxic products of alcohol breakdown, dehydration & hormonal effects - heart rate & blood pressure increase - EEG: show diffuse slowing of brain waves up to 16+ hours after BAC drops to 0 • Poisoning: death- caused by CNS & respiratory depression, inhaling fluid/vomit into lungs • Using w/ other drugs: - w/ meds that cause CNS depression increase effect - > leads to coma, respiratory depression, death - illegal drugs: forms cocaethylene - barbiturates, valium-like, narcotics, OTC antihistamines • Injuries/Violence: homicide, suicide, auto crashes - 3x chances of fatal injuries during leisure activities Aggression: contributes to 50% of murders, assaults, rapes • - anti-social personality disorder: criminal acts, deceitfulness, impulsiveness, fights/assaults, disregard for safety of others - family life: marital discord, domestic violence, abuse on children • Sexual Decision Making: - binge drinkers vs non-drinkers: 5x more likely to have unprotected sex - having sex w/ drunk person=sexual assault Chapter 15: Alcohol 3 Drinking & Driving: • MADD: 41% crashes=impairment related • highest rate=age 19 • visual perception, reaction time, steering • dose-response function: relationship among amount of alcohol/drug consumed, type, intensity. resulting effect • BAC=0.14% 40x likely to crash; above=380x; young=0.02% young people=impairment • legal consequences; limit: 0.08%; fines, loss of license, confiscation of vehicle, jail time; most provinces=0% Effects of ChronicAbuse: Digestive System: • fat develops in liver cells (fatty liver); inflammation of liver (results in alcoholic hepatitis) • cirrhosis: disease in which liver is severely damaged by alcohol, toxins, infection - destroyed cells replaced by fibrous scar tissue - women more likely, drug use, HCV infection - signs: jaundice, accumulation of fluid in abdomen & lower extremities - develop enlarged, fragile esophageal & rectal veins (vomiting=trigger to burst) - treatment: correcting nutrient deficiencies, abstinence - continue to drink w/ disease=50% survival chance for 5+ years • inflame pancreas (cause nausea, vomiting, abnormal digestion, severe pain) • pancreatisis • bleeding in gastrointestinal tract Cardiovascular System: • cardiac myopathy: weakening of heart muscle • 1-2 drinks/day may reduce risk of heart disease & heart attack • holiday heart: abnormal; 24 hours after binge episode Chapter 15: Alcohol 4 Cancer: • breast (2-3
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