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Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Psychological Health

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 2: Psychological Health 1 • Psychological Health: mental health, defined either negatively as the absence of illness or positively in the presence of wellness - factors: diet, sleep patterns, relationship issues Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: 1. Psychological needs 2. Being loved 3. Maintaing self-esteem 4. Self-actualization- highest level of growth in hierarchy - realism: difference between need/want - acceptance: - > self-concept- ideas, feelings, perceptions people have about themselves (self- image) - > self-esteem: values themselves as people, enjoy successes - autonomy: physical, social, emotional & intellectual dependence - > inner directed: own values/rules, internal locus of control, high level of self-efficacy - > other directed: act in response to what they feel as external pressure from others - authenticity: genuineness - capacity for intimacy: w/o fear of rejection, physically/emotionally close - creativity: open to new experiences, don’t fear unknown What Psychological Health Is Not: • normality: psychological characteristics attributed to the majority of people in a population at a given time • can’t say people have mental illness based on presence/absence of symptoms • can’t judge based on looks Meeting Life’s Challenges: Chapter 2: Psychological Health 2 Erik’s Stages of Development: 1. trust vs mistrust 2. autonomy vs shame & self-doubt 3. initiative vs guilt 4. industry vs inferiority 5. intimacy vs isolation 6. generatively vs self-absorption 7. integrity vs despair Developing an Adult Identity: • attitudes, beliefs, genuineness • sense of own uniqueness, but see similarities among group • intimate relationships, strong sense of self • early identifies: after parents or rebellion against what they represent (i.e. rockstars), rarely permanent • identity crisis: internal confusion about who you are • rode model Developing Intimacy: intimate relationships, sexual unions (open communication, long-term commitment, love) • Developing Values and Purpose in Your Life: • values: criteria for judging what is good vs bad, which underlie a person’s moral decisions & behaviour • recognize morals or lives may be hurriedly driven forward by immediate desires & passing demands of others • actions proclaim what you stand for Striving for Spiritual Wellness: longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease, faster recovery, improved emotional health • • connectedness w/ self, others, higher power/larger reality Chapter 2: Psychological Health 3 1. social support- religious services, volunteering 2. healthy habits- discourage harmful behaviours 3. positive attitude- cope w/ life’s challenges 4. moments of relaxation- prayer, meditation, artistic activities Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive Self-Concept: • childhood experiences • integration- image you have made for yourself, not others stability- integration of self & freedom from contradictions • • influence interpersonal relationships Meeting Challenges to Self-Esteem: • adjust goals w/o radically revising self-concept demoralized- feel bad, unloved, ineffective, failure • - > recognize/test negative thoughts & assumptions about yourself/others - > all-or-nothing: overlook positive, jump to negative conclusions - > cognitive distortions: pattern of negative thinking that makes events seem worse than they are - > self-talk: statements person makes to themselves in own mind Being Less Defensive: • defense mechanisms: mental device for coping w/ conflict or anxiety • probably become habits Being Optimistic: • pessimists: expect repeated failure/rejection, accept it as deserved optimist: potential to be unlearned • Chapter 2: Psychological Health 4 Maintaining Honest Communication: • express thoughts clearly • some fear denial (personal rejection) • assertiveness: exp
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