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Chapter 6

Chapter 6: Exercise & Fitness

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 6: Exercise for Health & Fitness 1 Physical Fitness • physical fitness: body’s ability to respond or adapt to demands & stress of physical effort • health related fitness: physical capabilities that contribute to health inc. cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, body composition, muscular strength/endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance: • ability of body to preform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity • factors: lungs’ability to deliver oxygen to bloodstream, heart’s capacity to pump blood, ability of NS & blood vessels to regulate blood flow, body’s ability to use oxygen & process fuels • poor fitness: linked w/ heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, stroke, depression, anxiety • endurance training: exercise intended specifically to improve cardiorespiratory endurance; prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercises, ex. walking - > heart pumps more blood per heartbeat, resting heart rate slows, resting blood pressure decreases, blood volume increases, blood supply to tissues improves • improves function of body’s chemical systems Muscular Strength: amount of force a muscle can produce w/ single maximum effort • • factors: size of muscle cells, ability of nerves to activate muscle cells • help keep skeleton in proper alignment, preventing back & leg pain, good posture • greater muscle mass- higher rate of metabolism, faster energy use, maintain body weight • sacropenia: aging; muscle cells become dysfunctional • strength training: maintains muscle mass, function, balance (older people); enhances quality of life, prevents life-threatening injuries; weight training, calisthenic exercise (ex. push up) Muscular Endurance: Chapter 6: Exercise for Health & Fitness 2 • ability of muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long time factors: size of muscle cells, ability of muscles to store fuel, blood supply to muscles • • helps people cope w/ everyday life, enhances performance in sports/work • stressing muscles w/ greater load (weight) than used to; depends on stress replied Flexibility: • ability to move joints through their full range of motion • depends on joint structure, length/elasticity of connective tissue, NS & structure • stiffness: cause people (of any age) to assume unnatural body positions, stress joints & muscles • stretching exercises help Body Composition: proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, water) in body • • fat-free mass: nonfat component of human body, consisting of skeletal muscle, bone, water • excessive body fat (esp. in abdominal area)- increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, joint problems, diabetes, gallbladder disease, cancer, back pain • lose fat- sensible diet, exercise Skill Related Components of Fitness: • skill related fitness: physical abilities that contribute to performance in a sport/activity (inc. speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, reaction time) • speed- ability to perform movement in short time • power- ability to exert force rapidly, based on combo of strength & speed • agility- ability to change body’s position quickly & accurately • balance- ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or stationary • reaction time- ability to respond quickly to stimulus • sport specific, developed through practice, ex. basketball- speed, coordination, agility PhysicalActivity & Exercise for Health & Fitness: men are more active than females; half population is active enough to trigger health gains • Chapter 6: Exercise for Health & Fitness 3 • fitness levels have declined significantly in past three decades • increase: concentration, memory, learning • 88% children/youth- don’t get recommended physical activity; 80% Canadian youth (12-19)- not meeting international physical activity guidelines • Table 6.1 (pg. 180)- Popularity of physical recreation activities of adults, age 20+ • Fig. 6.1 (pg. 181)- children & youth meeting guidelines, province & territory • differences among ethnic groups; white/aboriginal=moderately active; black/west asian, south asian, arab=less active PhysicalActivity on Continuum: • physical activity: any body movement carried out by skeletal muscles, requiring energy • ex. walking up stairs- require little energy, running marathon- require lots of energy • exercise: planned, structured, repetitive movement of body intended to improve/maintain physical fitness • factors: psychological- heart’s ability to pump blood, size of muscle fibres (genetics- person’s inborn potential & behaviour- amount of exercise) • 1998: 2/3 Canadians inactive; research indicated serious risk factor for premature death, chronic disease, disability; magnitude=smoking • 2001: adults (18-64) recommend strength training 2-3 times/week, moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (at least 10 min) most days/week; reduce sedentary activity • moderate intensity: walking, bike riding, vigorous intensity: jogging, cross country skiing • 150 min; reduce risk of high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, osteoporosis, depression, anxiety • Fig. 6.2, 6.3 (pg.183) examples of moderate amounts of physical activity, canadian physical activity guidelines • physical activity guidelines: do not conflict w/ CSEP; people who need to prevent weight gain, lose weight, maintain weight loss - > 45-90+ min daily • increase duration, intensity of physical activity- greater improvement in QOL, reduced risk in disease & mortality • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)- leader in exercise science; separate guidelines Chapter 6: Exercise for Health & Fitness 4 • Fig. 6.4 (pg. 185)- typical boy & girl (1981 vs 2007-09) Benefits of Exercise Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning: • heart pumps oxygenated blood to organs & tissues • exercise: heart, lungs, circulatory system must work harder to meet body’s increased demand for oxygen • reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, keep arteries from stiffening/clogging More Efficient Metabolism: metabolism: converts food to energy, builds tissue • • process involves oxygen, nutrients, hormones, enzymes • exercise: protect cells from free radical damage, inflammation, nicotine, overeating Improved Body Composition: high proportion of fat-free mass & small proportion of fat • • excess calories stored in body as fat • endurance exercise- increases daily calorie expenditure, raise metabolic rate for several hours after session • strength training- increases muscle mass; more muscle mass, higher metabolic rate • reduces risk of premature death; not eliminate overweight health risks, reduces negative effects Disease Prevention & Management Cardiovascular Disease: Chapter 6: Exercise for Health & Fitness 5 • Fig. 6.5, 6.6 (pg. 186-187)- immediate & long term effects of regular exercise, relationship among amount of physical activity, body weight, risk of premature death inc. heart attack, stroke • • risk factors: smoking, abnormal blood fats, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity • linked w/ metabolic syndrome- insulin resistance • physical inactivity increases risk of CVD by 50-240% - Blood Fat Levels- high conc. of lipids circulate in blood, formation of fatty deposits on lining of arteries; heart attack, stroke can occur; cholesterol carried by lipoproteins: high density (HDLs) pick up excess cholesterol in bloodstream, carry it back to liver for excretion; low density (HDLs) stick to walls of coronary arteries; high LDL & low HDL=high risk for cardiovascular disease, low LDL & high HDL=low risk - high blood pressure: endurance- reduce hypertension, contributing factor in coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, kidney failure, blindness - coronary heart disease: blockage of one of coronary arteries; destruction of blood
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