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Canada (158,081)
Shauna Burke (120)
Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Tobacco

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 16: Tobacco 1 • 1/5 deaths (Canada), 45000 premature • life expectancy (years lost): male- 6.5+, female=9+ • smokers (2009): 19% men, 16% female • each year: 1 million quit, 43% relapse • law: 19+, 50 million underage teens smoke • teens (12-19): 20% • w/ alcohol: 70%, w/ heroin: 90% • 2-4x more prevalent w/ mental health diagnosis: major depression, social phobias, anxiety Nicotine Addiction: • tobacco: leaves of cultivated tobacco plants prepared for smoking/chewing, or snuff • nicotine: poisonous, addictive substance in tobacco, responsible for many of effects - reaches brain via bloodstream seconds after inhaled through membranes of mouth or nose - release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine - low doses: stimulant; increases heart rate, blood pressure - adults: alertness, concentration, rapid info processing, memory, learning; opposite for teens - relieves withdrawal symptoms: anxiety, irritability, mild depression - high doses: increase in glucocortiocoids, endorphins Loss of Control: • quit: 65% relapse in 3 months, 75% in 6 months • regular: 40 min (routine) Tolerance & Withdrawal: • withdrawal symptoms: severe cravings, insomnia, confusion, tremors, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, muscle pains, headache, nausea, irritability, anger, depression Social & Psychological Factors: • secondary reinforcer: stimuli that are not necessarily pleasurable in themselves but are associated w/ other stimuli that are pleasurable Genetic Factors: Chapter 16: Tobacco 2 • CYP2A6: influences metabolization of nicotine, regulate enzyme • DRD2: associated w/ dopamine Why Start? • child/adolescent risk increase if: - parent/sibling, friends - blue-collar family - low-income home - single parent - dropping out of school - positive attitudes toward tobacco • 70% teens wish they hadn’t started; • use in movies=increased by 50% (1998-2000); influences youth- find new persona Health Hazards: cigarette tar: brown, sticky mass created when chemical particles in smoke condense • - inc. acetone, ammonia, hexamine, toluene • carcinogen: any substance that causes cancer • cocarcinogen: substance works w/ carcinogen to cause cancer • smoke: contains carbon monoxide (400x more than industrial workplaces) - displace O2 in RBC • 10% weight of nicotine: sugars, favouring agents, humectants • ammonia: reduces acidity of tobacco; releases in form of base (alkaline) rather than salt (acid) • side-stream smoke: uninhaled smoke from burning cigarette • 600 chemicals; pack-a-day: 50000-70000 puffs/year; “light” inhale 8x more tar & nicotine • methanol: bronchodilator- open lung’s airways, easier absorption for bloodstream Immediate Effects: dizziness, faintness, rapid pulse, cold, clammy skin, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Chapter 16: Tobacco 3 • cerebral cortex: outer layer of brain; controls complex behaviour/mental activity; stimulates adrenal glands to release adrenaline nicotine: inhibits formation of urine, constricts blood vessels, accelerate heart rate, blood • pressure; depresses hunger contractions, dulls tastes bud Long-Term Effects: Cardiovascular Disease: coronary heart disease- from atheroscerosis (fatty deposits, plaques, • form on inner walls of arteries) - myocardial infraction: heart attack caused by complete blockage of main coronary artery - age 40-50, 70% smokers - reduces HDL (good cholesterol), creates lesions/roughness in arterial walls (promotes plaque deposit), increase tension in heart muscle walls • Lung Cancer/other: benzo(a)pyrene- causes genetic mutations in lung cells - 2+ packs/day: 12-25x • stroke: sudden interference w/ circulation of blood in part of brain - > destruction of brain cells • aortic aneury
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