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Chapter 19

Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 19: Generic Drug, Dosage Form, Health Literacy

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Conventional and Complementary Medicine
Explain the forms of evidence and meaning of evidence-based health-care decision making
symptoms are often an expression of the body's attempt to heal itself
observing your own symptoms lets you identify if you need professional assistance: when it
began, how often, what makes it worse or better, associated symptoms
body's vital signs like temperature and heart rate
the Canadian Public Health Association defines health literacy are the "skills to enable access,
understanding and use of information for health"
most vulnerable populations: seniors, immigrants, unemployment
lack of access to trustworthy information or an inability to understand/use that information
evidence-based medicine triad is the overlap between individual clinical expertise, best external
evidence, patient values and expectations
issue with understanding the different kinds of evidence
learn how to interpret the nature and levels of evidence used in health research
"gold standard" is the experimental or scientific method
assign subjects randomly to an intervention group or control group
"double-blind" when the researchers don't know which group received the intervention
and the subjects don't know whether they received a drug or placebo
hierarchy of evidence pyramid
editorials (expert opinion), case series (case reports), case-control studies, cohort studies,
randomized controlled trails, systemic review
quality of evidence increases as you go higher in the pyramid
forms of media has "expert" opinions that depends on the source of the expertise being delivered
self-treatment with non-prescription medications
many OTC drugs are highly effective in relieving symptoms and sometimes in curing illnesses
many ingredients in OTC drugs (~70%) have proven to be not effective
simple guidelines to self-medicate safely:
always read labels and follow directions carefully with ingredients, directions for safe use,
warnings, and ask a pharmacist if you have any questions
do not exceed the recommended dosage or length of treatment
use caution if you are taking other medications
try to select medications with one active ingredient rather than combination products
expiration date
use special caution with Aspirin: associated with Reye's syndrom
DIN (drug identification number) uniquely identifies all authorized drug products sold in dosage
form and is printed on the label of prescription
generic drug is a drug that is not registered or protected by a trademark, does not have a brand name
over-the-counter (OTC) medications are medications or products that can be purchased by a consumer
without a prescription

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Professional Care
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are therapies or practices that are not part of
conventional or mainstream health care and medical practice as taught in most Canadian medical
schools and available at most Canadian health-care facilities
acupuncture, herbal remedies, massage, chiropractic
consumers turn to CAM for variety of purposes related to health and well-being
boosting their immune system, lowering cholesterol levels, losing weight, quitting smoking,
enhancing their memory
many CAM practices are controversial, due to safety issues
evidence-based practice is the practice of health-care in which the practitioner systematically finds,
appraises, and uses the most current and valid research findings as the basis of health-related decisions
used to denoted evidence-based medicine specifically
can also include other specialties (nursing, pharmacy, dentistry)
Describe the basic premises, practices and providers of conventional medicine
conventional medicine is a system of medicine based on the application of the scientific method
diseases are thought to be caused by identifiable physical factors and characterized by a
representative set of symptoms
also called biomedicine or standard Western medicine
premises and assumptions of conventional medicine
important characteristic of western medicine is the belief that disease is caused by identifiable
physical factors
identifies the causes of disease as pathogens, genetic factors, and unhealthy lifestyles that result
in changes at the molecular and cellular level
every disease is defined by a certain set of symptoms and the symptoms are similar in most
patients suffering from the disease
using drugs and surgery to control pathogens
sulpha drugs, antibiotics and steroids, advances in chemistry
heavy reliance on advanced medical technology to discover the physical causes of disease and
to correct, remove and destroy them
pharmaceuticals are medical drugs, both prescription and over-the-counter
electronic health records (EHR) are secure electronic records of people's health history that can be
accessed and shared through a network of client information management systems
enable health-care professionals to view and update essential patient data
scientific explanations have the following characteristics:
empirical based on evidence of the senses from objective and systematic observation
must be capable of verification by others
rational follow the rules of logic and are consistent with known facts
testable verifiable through direct observation or lead to predictions about what should occur
under conditions not yet observed
parsimonious explain phenomena by using the fewest number of causes
general broad explanatory power
rigorously evaluated evaluated for consistency with evidence and known principles, parsimony,
and for generality
tentative must be willing to entertain the possibility that their explainations are faulty, based on
new, better or connected evidence
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