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Chapter 14

Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Problem Gambling, Anxiety Disorder, Drug Liberalization

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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Drug Abuse and Addiction
Define and discuss the concepts of addictive behaviour, substance abuse, and substance
Characteristics of Addiction
reinforcement addictive behaviours reinforce themselves
positive: activity or situation reliably results in pleasure or reward
negative: avoiding the drug or activity results in stress, anxiety, discomfort or depression
compulsion or craving individual feels a strong compulsion, "hunger" to engage in behaviour
environmental cues and obsessive planning for the next opportunity to perform it
loss of control loses control over behaviour, cannot block the impulse to do it
escalation pattern of escalation in response to tolerance
more and more of the substance of activity is required to produce its desired effects
negative consequences behaviour continues despite serious negative consequences
problems with job or academic performance, personal relationships, health, legal or
financial troubles
development of addiction
addiction often starts when a person does something to bring pleasure or avoid pain
eventually, behaviour becomes a central focus of the person's life
deterioration in other areas
combination of factors involved lifestyle, heredity, social and physical environment, nature
withdrawal is a set of symptoms including anxiety, pain, irritability, sweating, tremors, vomiting, insomnia
characteristics of people with addictions
people with addictions seem to share some characteristics
use substance or activity as a substitute for healthier coping strategies
genetic predisposition variation in brain chemistry
problems with impulse control and self-regulation
tend to be risk takers
Examples of Addictive Behaviours
gambling disorder
individuals who are affected by moderate and severe problem gambling cannot control their urge to
gamble, even in the face of ruin
consequences of compulsive gambling are not just financial
Canada Safety Council more than 200 people with compulsive gambling problems take their
own lives every year
approximately 3% of adults in Canada are affected by moderate/severe problem gambling
more than 60% of youth (15-24yrs) in Canada have reported gambling at least once in past year
about 2% of youth report problem gambling
young men tend to have higher rates of gambling problems than women
symptoms preoccupation with gambling, unsuccessful efforts to quit, gambling when feeling distressed,
lying to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling
compulsive exercising
often accompanied by more severe psychiatric disorders anorexia, bulimia
symptoms excessive preoccupation and dissatisfaction with body image, use of laxatives or vomiting to
lose weight, development of other obsessive-compulsive symptoms

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work addiction
workaholic is individuals with an excessive preoccupation with work and work-related activities
symptoms intense work schedule, inability to limit one's work schedule, unable to relax
likely to neglect other areas of life
cardiovascular disease
type A personality competitiveness, ambition, drive, time urgency, hostility
sex and love addiction
online passive sex behaviour downloading, watching porn
active behaviour exchanging sexual content with others
extreme preoccupation with sex
compulsion to have sex repeatedly in a given period of time
spending a great deal of time and energy looking for partners or engaging in sex
using sex as a means of relieving painful feelings
suffering negative emotional, personal and professional consequences as a result of
sexual activities
compulsive buying or shopping
compulsive buyer repeatedly gives in to the impulse to buy more than he or she needs or can afford
usually buy luxury items rather than daily necessities
associated with eating disorder, depression, bipolar disorder
distressed by behaviour, social personal and financial consequences
internet addiction
to spend more time online, internet addicts skip important school, social or recreational activities
often spend their work time online
can't feel they need to stop
up to 10% of internet users may experience internet addiction, addicts usually spend 38 hours
online a week
Explain the factors contributing to drug abuse and addiction
The Drug Tradition
drugs are chemicals that are intended to affect the structure or function of the body
prescription medicines antibiotics, antidepressants
non-prescription / OTC substances alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, LSD, heroin
pharmacy is the art of compounding drugs from various substances
pharmacology is the science and study of drugs
Canadian mental health professionals use the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder
mild substance use disorder individual displays 2-3 symptoms from a list of 11 criteria
moderate or severe disorder exhibit 4-5 or 6-11
criteria for substance use:
1) developing a tolerance to the substance
2) experiencing withdrawal used it for so long the body has an unpleasant physical and cognitive
reaction during withdrawal attempts
3) taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period that was originally intended

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4) craving, a strong desire or urge to use a substance
5) making unsuccessful efforts to cut down or regulate substance use
6) spending lots of time obtaining the substance
7) giving up or reducing important social, school, work or recreational activity
8) continuing to use the substance in spite of recognizing the problem
9) using the substance repeatedly, resulting in failure to fulfill obligations at work, school, home
10) using the substance repeatedly, resulting in hazardous situations
11) continuing to use the substance despite social or interpersonal problems
who uses drugs?
young people at high risk of trying drugs share certain characteristics:
male males are twice as likely as females to abuse drugs
trouble adolescent teens with poor self-image, self-control, use of tobacco, or suffer from
certain mental or emotional problems
thrill-seeker drug experimentation
dysfunctional family chaotic home life or parental abuse increases risk
peer group that accepts drug use young people who are uninterested in school and receive
poor grades are more likely
poor disadvantage areas
dating young adolescent girls who date boys two or more years older than themselves are
more likely to use drugs
who doesn't use drugs?
people with positive self-esteem and self-concept
assertive, independent thinkers who are not controlled by peer pressure
self-control, social competence, optimism, academic achievement, regular church attendance
home environments open communication with parents, support, clear policy on drug use
why do people use drugs?
main factors in the initial choice of a drug are whether it is available and whether peers are using
primarily motivated by a desire to escape boredom, anxiety, depression, feelings of
worthlessness, or other distressing symptoms of psychological problems
Evaluate the role of drugs and other addictive behaviours in your life and identify your risk factors
for abuse or addiction
Risk Factors for Addiction
why some people use psychoactive drugs without being addicted physical, psychological, social factor
psychological risk factors difficulty controlling impulses
strong need for excitement, stimulation, immediate gratification
feelings of rejection, hostility, aggression, anxiety or depression
blot out emotional pain
social factors
growing up in a family in which parent or sibling abused drugs
belonging to a peer group that emphasizes or encourages drug use
living in poverty
psychological factors people with mental illnesses have a higher risk of substance
dual (co-occurring) disorders is people with two or more coexisting mental disorders, following
possibilities for this common co-occurrence:
drug abuse may bring about symptoms of another illness
mental disorders can lead to drug abuse "self-medication"
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