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Chapter 2

CHAPTER 2 Health sci.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 2: Psychological Health Encompasses the emotional, spiritual, social and mental dimensions of health What is psychological health? - It is not/cannot be: o Psychological normality:  Bc normal=close to average  Psychosocial diversity is valuable o Determined on the basis of symptoms alone • Eg. Anxiety, sadness What is psychological health? - It is: o The absence of [mental] sickness  Negative definition  Narrow o The presence of [mental] wellness  +ve defn  Broad o The fulfillment of human potential  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - Described an ideal of mental health - Studied individuals who lived “full” lives - Advanced a hierarchy of needs in order urgency o Physiological needs= must urgent - When urgent needs are satisfied, reach self-actualization? - Those who make it to the top of the needs hierarchy achieve self-actualization - Self- actualized individuals= psychologically healthy individuals - Characterized by several specific qualities: o Realism (ability to be realistic) o Acceptance (accept self and other ppl) o Autonomy (not afraid to be themselves) o Capacity for intimacy (able to give and receive intimacy) o Creativity Can We Reach SELF ACTUALIZATION? - An ideal to strive for - Can’t redo past (eg. Childhood, past experiences) - Must concentrate on successfully meeting current challenges Characteristics of a Psychologically Healthy Individual: 1. Feel comfortable about themselves; experience the full range of human emotions but are not overcome by them 2. Interact well with others; are able to give and receive love; have satisfying relationships 3. Able to meet the demand of life; respond appropriately to problems, accept responsibility, establish realistic goals 4. Having a balance in all aspects of your life 5. Resilience-> ability to recapture a sense of psychological wellness with a reasonable time after encountering a difficult situation Self-Esteem (SE) - Critical component of psychological wellness - INC SE may offset self-destructive behaviours (eg. Unhealthy ‘fad’ diets) - INC SE means finding a balance between your idealized self and where you are now - Foundations of SE can be traced to childhood - People are eventually responsible for enhancing ones ego/SE Hardiness: - Works with SE to ensure psychological health - Exists when a person consistently shows 3 important traits: o High level of COMMITMENT to something or someone o A sense of CONTROL o Welcome CHALLENGE Psychological Disorders: - Many people have a less than optimal level of psychological health - Most of us will either have emotional problems ourselves or know someone who is experiencing them - Result from many factors (eg. Genetic differences, learning and life events DEPRESSION - “An emotional state characterized by feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejection, worthlessness, emptiness, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality.” - Doesn’t mean that feeling sad is inappropriate, rather the intensity of sadness is beyond optimal. - Mosby (1997) - Becomes an illness when these feelings are severe, last for several weeks, and begin to interfere with one’s work and social life. (That is the point were usually people seek help, it’s usually long overdue because the earlier the treatment the better). - Depression is defined is the chronic feeling of low. - Any of the following may be indications of depression: o • Feeling worthless, helpless, or hopeless o • sleeping more or less than usual o • eating more or less than usual/ weight loss o • Having difficulty concentrating or making decisions o • Loss of interest in doing usual activities o • sex drive o • Avoiding other people o • Overwhelming feelings of sadness or grief o • Feeling unreasonably guilty o • reduced energy, feeling chronically tired o • Thoughts of death or suicide - At any given time, almost 3 million Canadians suffer from depression (about 8% of adults will experience depression at a certain point - Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be clinically depressed - Only 35% of depressed people seek help - Individuals with depression commonly have a number of compounding problems - (e.g., family problems, difficulty with social relationships) - Depression is a common factor related to most suicides Types of Depression - MAJOR DEPRESSION: - Primary or “endogenous” depression— begins for no apparent reason and is likely caused by changes in brain chemistry - Secondary or “exogenous” depression— develops after periods of difficulty (e.g., divorce, loss of job) - DYSTHYMIA : (another form of depression – very long lasting but milder) - Persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for 2 years or more **Children can also suffer from this form of depression but it usually lasts for one year. Sometimes the symptoms are a little bit different, not always feeling sad but rather irritable and not feeling themselves. Treating Depression - Most effective treatments for major depression are psychotherapy and antidepressants (although depression is most common, it is also the most treatable.) - Both treatments can be effective when used alone or in combination - Contrasts with the heavy reliance on antidepressive favoured during the past decade - Recovery within two years is not uncommon, although never assured - PSYCHOTHERAPY: - Typically a form of cognitive-based therapy (CBT) in which the depressed person learns how to recognize and deal with life situations in a constructive fashion - DRUG THERAPY: - Involves one or more of four classes of antidepressive medications: - _ Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors - _ Tricyclic antidepressants - _ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - _ Seratonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors Other Treatments for Depression - _ Physical activity o • Endorphin levels and effects on brain chemistry and hormonal levels partly explain why this is a powerful antidote for depression - _ Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) o • Delivers an electric shock to the brain inducing a brief seizure; debated issue - _ Complimentary treatments (e.g., St.John’s wort) o • Should be viewed with caution and should only be used after consultation with your physician Suicide - _ Often associated with severe depression - _ Second leading cause of death among youth (after accidents) - _ Suicidal individuals tend to become very overwhelmed by destructive emotions (anxiety, anger, loneliness, loss of SE, etc.) - _ Most suicidal individuals have depressive disorders and feel helpless and powerless over their lives Risk Factors of Suicidal Behaviour - • Little to no support system - • Made previous suicide attempts - • A family history of mental illness - • A family history of substance abuse or eating dis
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