Chapter 8: CANCER
Cancer Stages: Stage-Stage Description:
0-Early cancer, present only in the layer of cells where it originated
I, II, III -More extensive cancer, with higher numbers indicating greater tumour size and/or the degree to
which the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs adjacent to the primary tumour.
IV- Advanced cancer that has spread to another organ.
Gender & Cancer:
Men and women share most major risk factors for cancer, but they have a different experience because more
than a third of all cancers occur in sex organs (prostate, testes, breast, ovary, uterus, cervix).
For women, this means that in addition to lifestyle factors, such as smoking, diet, and exercise, hormonal
factors relating to their menstrual and childbearing history are also important risk considerations. Women
may also have a greater biological vulnerability to certain carcinogens, such as those in cigarettes.
Overall, however, men are more likely than women to have cancer and to die of cancer.
Here are some of the factors underlying the higher death rates among men:
Higher rates of tobacco use: Particularly in the past, men had significantly higher rates of smoking than
women, leading to much higher rates of the many cancers linked to smoking. Men also have much higher
rates of spit tobacco and cigar use. Lung cancer rates among men increased dramatically following
significantly increased smoking rates beginning in the early 1900s (inexpensive machine-produced cigarettes
were developed in the late 1800s). The lung cancer rate levelled off and (for men) started to decline after
smoking rates began dropping. The smoking-related increase in lung cancer among women occurred about
20–30 years after that seen in men, as smoking among women became more socially acceptable and
widespread beginning in the 1930s and 1940s.
Higher rates of alcohol use and abuse: Alcohol abuse is more common in men and is a risk factor for
several cancers, including oral and liver cancers.
Greater occupational exposure to carcinogens: Men are more likely to work in jobs where they are exposed
to chemicals—including asbestos, arsenic, coal tar, pitch, and dyes—or radiation, and such exposure is a risk
factor for cancers of the bladder, lung, and skin. Men are also more likely to have outdoor jobs involving
frequent sun exposure.
Less use of preventive measures and less contact with health care providers: Traditional gender roles may
make men more likely to minimize symptoms and less likely to seek help or to discuss cancer-related
worries with a health care provider. Men may place a low status on preventive care or screenings, such as
using sunscreen and wearing hats to protect the skin from the sun or performing self-exams.
Chapter 8- Cancer:
A malignant tumour can invade surrounding structures and spread to distant sites via the blood and
lymphatic system, producing additional tumours.
A malignant cell divides without regard for normal growth. As tumours grow, they produce signs or
symptoms that are determined by their location in the body.
One in two men and one in three women will develop cancer.
Lung cancer kills more people than any other type of cancer. Tobacco smoke is the primary cause. Colon and rectal cancer are linked to age, heredity, obesity, and a diet rich in red meat and low in fruit and
vegetables. Most colon cancers arise from preexisting polyps.
Breast cancer affects about one in nine women in Canada. Although breast cancer has a genetic component,
diet and hormones are also risk factors.
Prostate cancer is chiefly a disease of aging; diet and lifestyle probably are factors in its occurrence. Early
detection is possible through rectal examinations, PSA blood tests, and sometimes ultrasound.
Cancers of the female reproductive tract include cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. The Pap test is an
effective screening test for cervical cancer.
Abnormal cellular changes in the epidermis, often a result of exposure to the sun, cause skin cancer, as does
chronic exposure to certain chemicals. Skin cancers occur as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma,
Oral cancer is caused primarily by smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and use of spit tobacco. Oral
cancers are easy to detect but often hard to treat.
Testicular cancer can be detected early through self-examination.
Mutational damage to a cell's DNA can lead to rapid and uncontrolled growth of cells; mutagens include
radiation, viral infection, and chemical substances in food and air.
Cancer-promoting dietary factors include meat, certain types of fats, and alcohol.
Diets high in fruit and vegetables are linked to a lower risk of cancer.
Other possible causes of cancer include inactivity and obesity, certain types of infections and chemicals, and
Self-monitoring and regular screening tests are essential to early cancer detection.
Methods of cancer diagnosis include magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound.
Treatment methods usually consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Gene
therapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplants, proteasome inhibitors, biological therapies, and drugs that
inhibit angiogenesis or telomerase also hold promise as effective treatments.
Strategies for preventing cancer include avoiding tobacco; eating a varied, moderate diet and controlling
weight; exercising regularly; protecting skin from the sun; avoiding exposure to environmental and
occupational carcinogens; and getting recommended cancer screening tests.
Chapter 14- The Use & Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs:
Addictive behaviours are reinforcing. People with addictions experience a strong compulsion for the
behaviour and a loss of control over it; an escalating pattern of abuse with serious negative consequences
The sources or causes of addiction include heredity, personality, lifestyle, and environmental factors. People
may use an addictive behaviour as a means of alleviating stress or painful emotions. Many common behaviours are potentially addictive, including gambling, shopping, sexual activity, Internet
use, eating, and working.
Drug abuse is a maladaptive pattern of drug use that persists despite adverse social, psychological, or
Drug dependence involves taking a drug compulsively, which includes neglecting constructive activities
because of it and continuing to use it despite experiencing adverse effects resulting from its use. Tolerance
and withdrawal symptoms are often present.
Reasons for using drugs include the lure of the illicit; curiosity; rebellion; peer pressure; and the desire to
alter one's mood or escape boredom, anxiety, depression, or other psychological problems.
Psychoactive drugs affect the mind and body by altering brain chemistry. The effect of a drug depends on the
properties of the drug and how it's used (drug factors), the physical and psychological characteristics of the
individual (individual factors), and the physical and social environment surrounding the drug use (social
Opioids relieve pain, cause drowsiness, and induce euphoria; they reduce anxiety and produce lethargy,
apathy, and an inability to concentrate.
CNS depressants slow down the overall activity of the nerves; they reduce anxiety and cause mood changes,
impaired muscular coordination, slurring of speech, and drowsiness or sleep.
CNS stimulants speed up the activity of the nerves, causing acceleration of the heart rate, a rise in blood
pressure, dilation of the pupils and bronchial tubes, and an increase in gastric and adrenal secretions.
Marijuana usually causes euphoria and a relaxed attitude at low doses; very high doses produce feelings of
depersonalization and sensory distortion. The long-term effects may include chronic bronchitis and cancer;
use during pregnancy may impair fetal growth.
Hallucinogens alter perception, feelings, and thought and may cause an altered sense of time, visual
disturbances, and mood changes.
Inhalants are present in a variety of harmless products; they can cause delirium. Their use can lead to loss of
consciousness, heart failure, suffocation, and death.
Economic and social costs of drug abuse include the financial costs of law enforcement, treatment, and