Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Shauna Burke (133)
Chapter 3

2012.02.07 - HSci 1001 Chapter 3 Review Notes.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke

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Chapter Three  Stressors – situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions  Stress Response – the reactions themselves  Stress - the general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response o Is not limited to negative situations – can be a response to pleasurable things as well  The primary determinant of health consequences of stress is dependent on how the individual responds to the stress o Responses to stressors include physical changes and emotional/behavioural responses o The nervous and endocrine systems are responsible for the physical responses to stress  The Nervous System: consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves o The Autonomic Nervous System – the part of the nervous system that is not under conscious supervision and consists of two divisions  Parasympathetic Nervous System – in control when you are relaxed and aids in digestion, storing energy and growth promotion  Sympathetic Nervous System – activated during arousal and emergency situations  Releases norepinephrine which commands the body to mobilize energy resources to respond to crisis and causes arousal (increases attention and alertness when released to the brain) o Endocrine System – the system of glands, tissues, and cells that control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers into the blood stream  Helps prepare the body to respond to a stressor o Brain Detects Threat: Neurochemical message  Hypothalamus (releases chemicals)  Pituitary Gland (Releases ACTH)  Adrenal Gland (Releases Cortisol)  Bloodstream o Simultaneously: Sympathetic nerves  Adrenal Glands (Release epinephrine - adrenaline)  Triggers several bodily changes (Example: increased heart rate) o Fight-or-flight Reactions – physical responses that are not always necessary, vary in intensity and occur in response to both positive and negative stressors  Cognitive appraisal of a potential stressor influences how you view it, your predictions and perceptions of control reduce the magnitude of a stress response o Example: given a syllabus – can predict timing of deadlines  Personality – the sum of cognitive, behavioural, and emotional tendencies that affect how people perceive and react to stressors o Type A – ultracompetitive, controlling and have a higher perceived stress level and more problems coping with stress o Type B – relaxed and contemplative, more tolerant, and less frustrated o Type C – anger suppression, difficulty expressing emotions, feelings of hopelessness and despair, exaggerated responses to minor stressor, which may impair immune function o Type D – new construct, whom have a tendency to feel negative emotions and avoid social contact with others, gloomy, socially inept and anxious  Resilience – personally traits associated with social and academic success o Nonreactive resilience – doesn’t act to a stressor o Homeostatic resilience – person may react strongly, but returns to baseline functioning quickly o Positive growth resilience – person learns and grows from the stress experience  Homeostasis – a state in which blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels and other vital functions are maintained at a normal level o After a stressful situation, the parasympathetic nervous system initiates adjustments necessary to restore homeostasis  Tend-and-befriend Reactions – responses to stress with social and nurturant behaviour
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