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Chapter 1

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Health Science Chapter 1 Notes Health: -not just the absence of disease -the overall condition of body or mind and the presence or absence of illness/injury -can be influenced or determined by factors outside your control (i.e. genes, age, and health care system) Wellness: -optimal health and vitality -living life to the fullest -encompasses the all dimensions of health -largely determined by your own decisions (i.e. your lifestyle) -the process of achieving wellness is constant and dynamic, involving change and growth (not static) -requires knowledge, self-awareness, motivation and effort Determinants of Health -factors that influence the health of individuals and groups • Income and social status • Social support network • Education and literacy • Employment and working conditions • Social environment • Physical environment • Personal health practices and • healthy child development coping skills • Biology and genetic disorders • Health services • gender • culture Risk Factor -a condition that increases a person’s chances of disease or injury -some things are out of control but things like smoking, drinking alcohol, going to the gym or eating a healthy diet are in our control Health Promotion -vehicle for achieving wellness -a process enabling people to increase control over and improve their health -you must play an active role in the decisions related to each dimension of your wellness THE DIMENSIONS OF WELLNESS -interrelated (have an effect on each other) -ignoring one dimension can have a negative effect on your overall wellness Physical Wellness: - body’s overall condition (ie fitness level, no disease etc) - ability to take care of yourself and own physical needs - make choices that help avoid illness and injuries - decisions made now (i.e. not smoking) will affect your body and physical wellness in the long run Emotional Wellness - ability to understand and deal with your feelings - attending to your own thoughts and feelings, monitoring reactions and identifying obstacles - emotional stability, finding solutions to emotional problems (can require professional help) Intellectual (Mental) Wellness - challenging your mind - having an active mind so you are able to detect problems, find solutions and direct behaviour - never stop learning Spiritual Wellness - positive set of beliefs, principles or values that give you a meaning and purpose in life - Religion is an example but not only way to attain spiritual wellness (i.e. may find it through nature or art etc…) Interpersonal (Social) Wellness - ability to maintain satisfying and stable relationships - support network - participating in and contributing to the community and society - greatly effects physical and emotional wellness Environmental Wellness - livability of your surroundings - health of the planet - safety of food supply, degree of violence in society - learning to protect yourself against hazards, work to make world safer and cleaner Infectious Disease vs Chronic Disease Infectious Chronic -can spread from one person to another -develops over time -cause my microorganisms -continues for long periods of time -vaccines and antibiotics can fight/ treat this -costly and difficult to treat -ex. Diarrhea, pneumonia -can be caused by things outside our control (i.e genes) -ex. Cancer, heart disease -both of these are influenced by our lifestyle choices (conscious behaviour that increases or decreases a person’s risk of disease or injury) -ex. Smoking, exercising, diet etc The Integrated Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy - federal, provincial and territorial ministers of health sought out to help prevent or lower the risk of getting a chronic disease by addressing preventable risk factors (i.e physical inactivity, smoking diet) - also took action against the underlying conditions in society that let to these risk factors like income, education, geography etc - vision is a healthy nation that has the support and availability for overall good health and reduce health disparities by 2015 - goal: increase by 20% healthy eating, physical activity and healthy body weight and therefore increase wellness Diversity - many health conditions are a function of biology and culture combined - most health issues concern us all equally - don’t want to be stereotypical but don’t want to over generalize either Sex Gender -biological and physiological characteristics -roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that define men and women that society says is appropriate for men -physical reproductive organs and bodily and women functions -rooted in a person’s sex but shaped by environment and experiences -ex lower income for females and higher drinking rates for men - Ethnicity: there are health disparities in genes not cultural but it appears to be culture because the genes are passed down which result from that cultures ancestors (i.e sickle-cell in African Americans, not because they’re African American but because of the genes passed down through generations) Example: aboriginal people are 1.5 times the rate of heart disease, 3-5 times more likely the rate of type 2 diabetes and 8-10 times the rate of infection from tuberculosis - Income and Education: poverty and low educational attainment are very connected to bad health. People that fall under this category have higher rates of infant mortality, traumatic injury, disease and violent death. This is because they eat poorly, smoke, do drugs, drink or are exposed to more day to day stressors (i.e multiple jobs) - Disability: have activity limitations, need assistance or perceive themselves as incompetent. They are more likely to be inactive and overweight, and also more depressions is reported - Geography: rural areas have higher death rate, are less active, don’t wear seatbelts, less likely to finish high school, are farther away from emergency services and are less likely to get checked for preventable diseases. They are also less likely to get
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