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Chapter 2

Textbook Review Chapter 2

10 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

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Health Science Chapter 2 Notes Psychological Health (mental health) - Contributes to every dimension of wellness (i.e. difficult to maintain emotional, social, or physical wellness if you are not psychologically healthy) - Capacity to think, feel and behave in ways that contribute to our ability to enjoy life and manage challenges - Effected by sleep, diet, relationships etc. - The absence of mental illness/ the presence of mental wellness Maslow’s Hierarchy - Hierarchy of Needs: o Physiological Needs o Safety o Being Loved o Maintaining self-esteem o Self-actualization - Self-actualization (fulfilled a good measure of human potential; highest level of growth in Maslow’s Hierarchy; ideal to strive for, not thinking of our mistakes as failures) o Realism: knowing the difference between what is real and what they want, can cope with the world as it exists, understand some things cannot be changed, can adapt when they find contradictions to their beliefs o Acceptance: accepting who/what they are, having a positive but realistic self- concept (ideas, feelings and perception people have about themselves; aka self- image), having a high but realistic level of self-esteem (satisfaction and confidence in yourself, the valuing of yourself as a person), being tolerant of your imperfections and accepting other peoples imperfections o Autonomy: being able to direct themselves and be independent (more than just physical independence but social, emotional and intellectual as well), inner- directed (guided in behaviour by an inner set of rules and values; have an internal locus and high self-efficacy), not giving into peer pressure and saying what you feel not what you think will make others happy o Authenticity: not afraid to be themselves, being genuine and spontaneous without self-consciousness, do not worry about being judged for being themselves, GENUINENESS o Capacity for intimacy: can be physically and emotionally intimate, can share feelings and thoughts without fear of rejection, open to physical contact and being close to others o Creativity: look at the world with renewed appreciation, creative not in the sense of poetry or art but having an open mind to new experiences, don’t fear the unknown or uncertainty What Psychological Health is Not - Normality: the psychological characteristics attributed to the majority of people in a population at a given time, close to average - Normality is not the same as psychological health because not everyone is the same (i.e. we do not think the same or feel the same) - Seeking help does not make you weak or psychologically not healthy - Cannot base mental illness just on the absence or presence of symptoms - Cannot judge mental health from the way a person looks (i.e. just because someone looks happy does not mean they don’t have a mental illness) - Although silence is a virtue it can also prevent someone from coming forward and speaking up/getting help Meeting Life’s Challenges Erikson's Stages of Development Age Conflict Important People Task Birth–1 year Trust vs. mistrust Mother or other primary In being fed and comforted, developing the trust caregiver that others will respond to your needs 1–3 years Autonomy vs. shame Parents In toilet training, locomotion, and exploration, and self-doubt learning self-control without losing the capacity for assertiveness 3–6 years Initiative vs. guilt Family In playful talking and locomotion, developing a conscience (based on parental prohibitions) that is not too inhibiting 6–12 years Industry vs. inferiority Neighbourhood and In school and playing with peers, learning the school value of accomplishment and perseverance without feeling inadequate Adolescence Identity vs. identity Peers Developing a stable sense of who you are—your confusion needs, abilities, interpersonal style, and values Young adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Close friends, sex Learning to live and share intimately with others, partners often in sexual relationships Middle adulthood Generativity vs. self-Work associates, Doing things for others, including parenting and absorption children, community civic activities Older adulthood Integrity vs. despHumankind Affirming the value of life and its ideals - Growing Up Psychologically: responses to life challenges are influence the development of our personality and identity o Developing An Adult Identity: unified sense of self, attitudes, beliefs and being yourself, who we are, what role we play, place among peers, uniqueness, knowing strengths and weaknesses, being realistic, forming intimate relationship but still having a strong sense of self… identities evolve as we go through life, first we are influenced by our parents then we find other role models to be like until we find who we are, identities are never permanent, identity crisis (internal confusion about who you are), until we have found ourselves we cannot have much self-esteem, self-image or self-efficacy o Developing Intimacy: learning to live intimately with others and finding a productive role in society; to be able to love and work, sharing, open communication, long-term commitment o Developing Values and Purpose in Life: Values (criteria for judging what is good and bad, which underlie a person’s moral decision and behaviour, without awareness of our personal values our lives will be driven by immediate desires and passing demands of others, consider options carefully before making a choice, make choices without outside pressure that oppose your values, act on your choice - Striving for Spiritual Wellness: very personal wellness, linked to longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease, faster recovery, and improved emotional wellness, makes you more aware of personal values and clarifies them o Social Support: gets you involved and part of a community with similar values o Health Habits: encouraged healthy behaviours and self-respect o Positive Attitude: give a sense of purpose and meaning in life and a positive outlook on life which in turn helps people cope with life’s challenges o Moments of Relaxation: things like prayer, meditation, and immersion can help relieve stress by relaxing the body mentally and physically - Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem: analyzing and loving yourself o Developing A Positive Self-Esteem: having a sense of being loved and being able to give love from a young age, integration (a self-concept you have made for yourself not one others have made for you), having positive role models to adopt characteristics from, stability (depends on the integration of the self and its freedom from contradictions, i.e. not having mixed/blurry messages about yourself from friends and family) o Meeting Challenges to Self-Esteem: attempts to accomplish a goal may end in failure but learning how to react to this is key, acknowledge the mistake and learn/ adapt so you can reach your goal, try not to react with a negative self- concept  Notice Your Patterns of Thinking: Note when you are thinking negative then observe and analyze how you could change this  Avoid Focusing on the Negative: don’t jump to conclusions, be reasonable, avoid personalizing situations, take responsibility but don’t blame yourself  Develop Realistic Self-Talk: be rational and positive when you talk to yourself, don’t judge or blame, recognize problems but try to keep them in proportion o Being Less Defensive: recognizing our own defense mechanisms can be difficult as they occur unconsciously, figure out strategies or plans to cope with situations so you are prepared, - Defence and Coping Mechanisms Mechanism Description Example Projection Reacting to unacceptable inner A student who dislikes his roommate feels that the impulses as if they were from outsideroommate dislikes him. the self Repression Expelling from awareness an The child of an alcoholic, neglectful father remembers unpleasant feeling, idea, or memory him as a giving, loving person. Denial Refusing to acknowledge to yourself A person believes that smoking cigarettes won't harm what you really know to be true her because she's young and healthy. Passive-aggressive Expressing hostility toward someone A person tells a co-worker, with whom she competes for behaviour by being covertly uncooperative or project assignments, that she'll help him with a report passive but then never follows through. Displacement Shifting your feelings about a person A student who is angry with one of his professors to another person returns home and yells at one of his housemates. Rationalization Giving a false, acceptable reason A shy young man decides not to attend a dorm party, when the real reason is telling himself he'd be bored. unacceptable Substitution Deliberately replacing a frustratinA student having a difficult time passing courses in goal with one that is more attainable chemistry decides to change his major from biology to economics. Humour Finding something funny in A student whose bicycle has been stolen thinks how unpleasant situations surprised the thief will be when he or she starts downhill and discovers the brakes don't work. - Being Optimistic: try not to expect repeated failures and rejections, think about the best thing that could happen and strive for that, stay away from negative thoughts, surround yourself with positive people and know that you can have success - Maintaining Honest Communication: be honest with yourself and others, express what you really feel and want and be open to other peoples wants and feelings, assertiveness (expression that is forceful but not hostile), have good communication with others and don’t fear rejection - Dealing With Loneliness: balance your alone time and social time, being alone isn’t always bad (i.e. be comfortable with being by yourself) but being alone all the time isn’t healthy, give others a good chance of getting to know you, you can’t please everyone so not everyone is going to like you, don’t feel pressured to be social or have lots of friends as this may lead to you to take up with someone whose interests/values/needs are different than yours, join a club or team, email or text someone - Dealing with Anger: it is not healthy to hold in anger but also not healthy to be overly hostile, try to control anger (mess up psychologically wellness if for example you say hurtful things that mess up a relationship) o Managing Your Own Anger: reframe, think about the situations and why it is making you angry (i.e. maybe it was not intentional on their part), relax and walk away to calm down, distract yourself until you can control yourself, cool-off, removing yourself from the situation does not mean you dropped the matter at
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