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Chapter 4

Textbook Review Chapter 4

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Textbook Review Chapter 4 Fat-free mass: composed of all the body’s tissue, organ tissues and teeth Subcutaneous fat: The fat just beneath the skin; critical for normal body functioning. Protective for a variety of diseases Visceral fat: The fat inside the abdominal wall and around the internal organs; an excess leads to a greater risk of heart disease, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Ectopic fat: The fat located on or within organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain; increases the risk for metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and stroke. 1 kilogram of fat is equal to 7000 calories Percent body fat: The percentage of total body weight that is composed of fat. Overweight: Body weight that falls above the recommended range for good health. Obesity: The condition of having an excess of nonessential body fat; having a body mass index of 30 or greater or having a percent body fat greater than about 25% for men and 33% for women. Energy Balance: healthy ratio of fat-to-fat-free mass. Balancing energy (calories) from food you eat with the energy (calories) your body uses as fuel (i.e. for physical activity and other vital bodily functions) Height-Weight Charts: list a range of ideal or recommended body weight associated with the lowest mortality for people of a particular sex, age and height. Inaccurate; only provide an indirect measure of body fat Body Mass Index (BMI): A measure of relative body weight that takes height into account and is highly correlated with more direct measures of body fat; calculated by dividing total body weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in metres). Fairly accurate measure of the health risks of body weight for average people but inaccurate when it comes to fat-to-fat-free ratio Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing and Bod Pod: person is weighed underwater. Fat floats more than muscle. Device called Bod Pod measures the amount of air displaced by the person’s body. Skinfold Measurement: measures thickness of fat under skin Electrical Impedance Analysis: electrical current transmitted from electrode to electrode. The current favours fat-free tissues over fat tissues, therefore the measurement of current tell us fat % Scanning Procedures: assess body composition but are expensive. (e.g. CT, MRI, DEXA etc) Health Risks of Excess Body Fat: - Double mortality rate - Reduces life expectancy by 10-20 years - 50-100% increased risk of death from all causes - Unhealthy cholesterol and triglyceride levels - Impaired heart and immune function - Death from cardiovascular disease - Hypertension - Cancer - Gallbladder and kidney disease - Skin problems - Impotence - Sleep and breathing disorders - Back pain - Arthritis and other bone and joint disorders - Complication with pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, urine leakage - Psychological disorders/ problems (i.e. low self-esteem, depression) - Diabetes Diabetes: - 2 Types: o Type 1: pancreas secretes little or no insulin. Immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing cells in pancreas. Normally occurs before age of 30 (3%-5% of Canadians that have diabetes) o Type 2: pancreas doesn’t secrete insulin or the cells are resistant to insulin. Usually diagnosed after age 40 but there is a growing rate of children having type 2 diabetes now (95%-97% of people in Canada with diabetes) o Third Type: can happen to women during pregnancy but normally will go away after pregnancy. However, half the women who experience will late develop type 2 diabetes - Prevention: o Healthy lifestyle behaviours: regular exercise, moderate diet etc o Medication: may help but lifestyle behaviours are more effective o Modest Body Weight: excess fat is linked to diabetes - Treatment: o No cure o Keep blood sugar levels within appropriate range o Drug therapy o Weight loss through exercise and good diet - Warning Signs: o Frequent urination o Infections o Extreme hunger or thirst o Fatigue o Unexplained weight loss o Blurred vision, cut and bruises that are slow to heal, itching, numbness of hands or feet o Get tested as finding/ diagnosing it early is critical Body Fat Distribution and Health: important indicator of health. Women store fat around hips, buttocks, and thigh while men store fat in upper regions of body especially abdomen. Depending on where there is excess fat can increase risk of many complications and diseases Body Image: The mental representation a person holds about his or her body at any given moment in time, consisting of perception, images, thoughts, attitudes and emotions about the body. (Negative Body image= dissatisfaction with the body or some part of the body, may lead to negative consequences like cosmetic surgery, eating disorders etc). Should not focus on a particular weight but focus on living a healthy and balance lifestyle Very Low Body Fat: threat to wellness. Extreme leanness may lead to reproductive, circulatory and immune system disorders, muscle wasting, fatigue and is often associated with dangerous eating disorders o Female Athlete Triad: a condition consisting of 3 interrelated disorders; abnormal eating patterns and excessive exercise, followed by lack of menstrual periods and decreased bone density (premature osteoporosis) o Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation Genetic Factors Associated with Excess Fat: - Nutrigenomics: study of how nutrients and genes interact and how genetic variation can cause people to respond differently to nutrients in food - Genes influence body size and shape, fat distribution, metabolic rate, and how easily weight is gained and where it stored - If both parents over weight then child has an 80% risk of being obese and 40% if one parent is obese. (More than 600 genes associated with obesity) Physiological Factors: - Metabolism: sum of all vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to and used by the body o Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR): energy required to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature and blood pressure, while at rest o Higher RMR means person burns more calories at rest and can have more calories without gaining weight o Influenced by exercise - Hormones: play a role in accumulation of body fat (especially females) o Leptin: carried to the brain and lets the brain know how big or small the body’s fat stores are. This regulates appetite and metabolic rate o Cases of obesity based primarily on hormones exist but they are very rare - Fat Cells: the amount of adipose tissue (fat) the body can store is a function of the number and size of fat cells o Some people born with above-average fat cells therefore can store more fat and things like overeating in childhood can cause more fat cells to be made o More visceral and ectopic fat means greater chance of developing insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and heart disease o Gynoid Obesity: subcutaneous fat appears on the lower body (hips, buttocks and thighs). Happens more in females than males (“the pear shape”) o Android Obesity: excess visceral and ectopic fat that carry it on upper body (“apple shape”) o Pear is seen as better than apple in terms of health risks - Eating: eating out, over-eating and eating calorie dense foods has contributed greatly to weight gain. Convenience of restaurants and fast food joints makes it difficult to resist the high-fat, high-sugar, high-calorie foods. Portion sizes have increased by 25% which also leading to a greater calorie intake. - Physical Activity: physical activity has been decreasing (starting from childhood). This is due to technology and how everything has been made easy for us (i.e. cars, elevators, remotes). Also, schools have cut back on physical activity throughout the day Psychosocial Factors: food is used as a means of coping with stress and negative emotions (i.e. comfort food). Obesity is linked to a person’s socioeconomic status o Obesity goes down as income goes up o Lower income levels= women more obese (expected to be slim when more wealthy), Higher income levels= men more obese o Greater acceptance of obesity in different cultures and food can be linked to certain cultural and family values o Obesity goes down when education and income go up because of more availability to information about nutrition, ability to buy low-fat, low-calorie foods and more opportunities for / more education about physical activity Diet and Eating Habits: refers to your daily food choices - Total Calories: certain about of calories you should intake based on your gender, age, and activity level. Have to balance energy (food) taken in with energy used by body - Portion Size: overconsumption of total calories is closely tied to portion sizes. Not knowing the portion size could lead to underestimating the amount of calories consumed thus in taking more calories than you should. Also, in moderation things like nuts and avocados are good for you but too much can lead to excess calories. Packages foods can be very misleading as well - Energy(Calorie) Density: the number of calories per gram of food. Fullness is measured in how heavy a food was not the amount of calories in that food. Examples of low density foods: fresh fruit and vegetables. Examples of high density foods: butter, mayo, cheese, chocolate, fatty meats etc. Fat-free does not mean calorie free. - Eating Habits: have 5 small meals a day, a regular eating pattern, and as healthy as possible. “Everything in moderation” Physical Activity and Exercise: burns calories and keeps metabolism geared towards using food for energy instead of storing it as fat. Suppresses appetite. Thinking and
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