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Chapter 5

Textbook Review Chapter 5

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Textbook Review Chapter 5 Nutrition: The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease. Essential Nutrients: Substances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. Includes proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water. - Proteins: o 4 calories/gram o Function: Forms important parts of muscles, bone, blood, enzymes, cell membranes and hormones. Repairs tissues, regulates water and acid-base balance, helps in growth, supplies energy o Major Sources: meat, fish, eggs, poultry, milk products, legumes and nuts - Carbohydrates: o 4 calories/gram o Function: supply energy to brain, nerve, muscle and blood cells o Main Source: Grains, fruit, vegetables, milk - Fats: o 9 calories/ gram o Function: Supplies energy, insulates, supports and cushions organs, medium for fat-soluble vitamins o Main Sources: animal foods, grains, nuts, seeds, fish, vegetables - Vitamins: o Function: Promote specific chemical reactions o Main Sources: fruits, vegetables, grains, meat and dairy products - Minerals: o Function: Regulate body functions, aid in growth and maintenance of tissues, catalysts for the release of energy o Main source: in most food groups - Water: o Makes up approx. 60% of body weight o Function: medium for chemical reactions, transports chemicals, regulates temperature, removes waster o Main source: foods, vegetables, liquids Macronutrient: An essential nutrient required by the body in relatively large amounts. (Protein, Fat, Carbs) Micronutrient: An essential nutrient required by the body in minute amounts. (vitamins and minerals) Digestion: The process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb. Kilocalorie: A measure of energy content in food; one kilocalorie represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one litre of water by one degree Celsius; commonly referred to as a calorie. Average person needs around 2000 a day. Alcohol provides about 7 calories/ gram Protein: An essential nutrient. A compound made of amino acids that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. - Amino Acids: o The building blocks of proteins o 20 common ones; 9 essential and 11 produced by body - Complete and Incomplete Proteins: o Complete: supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts (ex. Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, soy) o Incomplete: do not supply all essential amino acids or if they do, they do not supply enough (ex .Nuts and Legumes: Vegetables, such as peas and beans, that are high in fibre and are also important sources of proteins) o Can combine multiple incomplete proteins to make complete protein (aka complementary proteins) - Recommended Protein Intake: o 0.8 grams/ kilogram of body weight o About 10%-35% of total daily caloric intake o Consuming more protein than needed results in it turning to fat for energy storages or burned for energy requirements o High to very high protein intake can cause excess fat or strain kidneys Fats (Lipids): most concentrated source of energy. 2 types essential components to diet; linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid (used as regulators for body functions and maintenance of blood pressure and healthy pregnancy and are both polyunsaturated) - Types and Sources of Fat: o Most common is a glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains attached called a triglyceride o May be saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated depending on the structure o Food fats are mostly saturated (solid at room temp. and found in animal products i.e. red meats) and unsaturated (plants sources and are liquid at room temp.) - Hydrogenation: A process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats. Hydrogenation produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids. o Trans fatty acid: A type of unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation; trans fats have an atypical shape that affects their chemical activity. o Hydrogenation increase stability of oil so it can be reused for deep frying, improve texture of certain foods, extend shelf life, and transform - Fats and Health: o Cholesterol: A waxy substance found in the blood and cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormones.  Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of deposits on artery walls. “Bad” cholesterol  High-density lipoprotein (HDL): Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease. “Good” cholesterol. Saturated fats impair HDL’s ability to prevent inflammation of blood vessels. o Important to minimize consumption of both saturated and trans fat by eating less baked goods, fatty milk products and oils. Small amounts found naturally are healthy o Omega-3 fatty acids: Polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils that are beneficial to cardiovascular health. Contains essential nutrient alpha-linolenic acid. Have many heart healthy. Main sources: fish (have twice a week), dark- green leafy vegetables, walnuts, flax seeds and flaxseed, walnut and canola oil o Omega-6 fatty acids: primarily from corn oil and soybean oil. Foods rich in omega-6s are important because they contain the essential nutrient linoleic acid - Recommended Fat Intake o Adult men need about 17 grams per day of linoleic acid and 1.6 grams per day of alpha-linolenic acid o Adult women need 12 grams of linoleic acid and 1.1 grams of alpha-linolenic acid o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs): are based on ensuring adequate intake of essential nutrients while also reducing the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer o The AMDR for total fat is 20%–35% of total calories o AMDRs have also been set for omega-6 fatty acids (5%–10%) and omega-3 fatty acids (0.6%–1.2%) as part of total fat intake Carbohydrates: An essential nutrient; sugars, starches, and dietary fibre are all carbohydrates. - Simple and Complex Carbs: o Simple Carbs  sucrose (table sugar), fructose (fruit sugar, honey), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar)  provide much of the sweetness in foods  found naturally in fruits and milk and are added to soft drinks, fruit drinks, candy, and sweet desserts o Complex Carbs  Include starches and most types of dietary fibre  Found in a variety of plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers o The body breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugar molecules, such as glucose, for absorption. Then once in bloodstream, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. The liver and muscles also take up glucose to provide carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogen. Problems controlling blood glucose levels is called diabetes  Glucose: A simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel.  Glycogen: An animal starch stored in the liver and muscles - Refined Carbohydrates vs. Whole Grains: o Whole grain: The entire edible portion of a grain, such as wheat, rice, or oats, consisting of the germ, endosperm, and bran. Before they are processed, all grains are whole grains. o Refined Carbs: usually retain all the calories of their unrefined counterparts, but they tend to be much lower in fibre, vitamins, minerals etc. Many refined grain products are enriched or fortified with vitamins and minerals, but often the nutrients lost in processing are not replac.d o Unrefined Carbs: tend to take longer to chew and digest, enter the bloodstream more slowly, tends to make people feel full sooner and for longer, help manage diabetes, linked to a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, and certain forms of cancer. Better than refined - Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response: o Glycemic index: A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels. o Unrefined complex carbohydrates and high-fibre foods generally tend to have a low glycemic index o The more acidic and higher in fat a food is, the lower its effect on glucose levels. o No specific guidelines based on glycemic index. - Recommended Carbohydrate Intake: o 45%–65% of total daily calories o About 225–325 grams of carbohydrate for someone consuming 2000 calories per day o AMDR for added sugars of 25% or less of total daily calories, many health experts recommend an even lower intake Fibre: Nondigestible carbohydrates provided by plants. Instead of being digested, fibre passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces in the large intestine. Necessary for good health. - Type of Fibre: o Dietary fibre: Nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intact in plants. o Functional fibre: Nondigestible carbohydrates either isolated from natural sources or synthesized; may be added to foods and dietary supplements. o Total fibre: The total amount of dietary fibre and functional fibre in the diet. o Soluble (viscous) fibre: Fibre that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. o Insoluble fibre: Fibre that does not dissolve in water and is not broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. o Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, reduced risk of colon and rectal cancer and improve gastrointestinal health. - Sources of Fibre: All plant foods, Fruits, legumes, oats (especially oat bran), and barley all contain the viscous type of fibre, and wheat, other grains and cereals, and vegetables are good sources of cellulose and other fibres - Recommended Fibre Intake: 38 grams for adult men and 25 grams for adult women. Vitamins: Carbon-containing substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body - Types: o Fat Soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, K o Water Soluble: Biotin, Folate, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Vitamin B6, Vitamins B12, Vitamin C o Solubility affects how a vitamin is absorbed, transported, and stored in the body; water-soluble straight into the bloodstream while fat-soluble carried in the blood and stored in liver or fat tissues - Functions: help chemical reactions take place, help unleash the energy stored, critical in the production of red blood cells and the maintenance of the nervous, skeletal, and immune systems. Some serve as antioxidants  Antioxidant: A subs
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