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Chapter 6

Textbook Review Chapter 6

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Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Professor
Anita Cramp
Semester
Winter

Description
Textbook Review Chapter 6 Physical Fitness: The body's ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort. Perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired Health-related Fitness: Physical capabilities that contribute to health, including cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity. Depends on such factors as the lungs' ability to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream, the heart's capacity to pump blood, the ability of the nervous system and blood vessels to regulate blood flow, and the body's ability to use oxygen and process fuels for exercise. When it’s low, heart has to work harder. Higher makes heart better Endurance Training: Exercise intended specifically to improve cardiorespiratory endurance; usually involves prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercises. Makes the heart stronger and improves the function of the entire cardiorespiratory system. Muscular Strength: The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. Depends on such factors as the size of muscle cells and the ability of nerves to activate muscle cells. Keeps skeleton in proper alignment, prevents back and leg pain, provides support. - Sarcopenia: a condition where muscle cells are lost Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long time. Depends on such factors as the size of muscle cells, the ability of muscles to store fuel, and the blood supply to muscles. Helps posture and injury prevention. Flexibility: The ability to move joints through their full range of motion. Depends on joint structure, the length and elasticity of connective tissue, and nervous system activity. Helps avoid stiffness Body Composition: The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body. Involves a high proportion of fat-free mass and an acceptably low level of body fat, for a given age and sex . Fat-free Mass: The nonfat component of the human body, consisting of skeletal muscle, bone, and water. Skill-related Fitness: Physical abilities that contribute to performance in a sport or activity, including speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time. Sport-specific and can be developed through practice. • Speed: the ability to perform a movement in a short time • Power: the ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed • Agility: the ability to change the body's position quickly and accurately • Balance: the ability to maintain equilibrium while either moving or stationary • Coordination: the ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly by using body movements and the senses • Reaction time: the ability to respond quickly to a stimulus Physical Activity: Any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy. Studies have shown that physical activity helps to boost concentration, memory, and learning in school. Aerobic activity must be at least 10 minutes, and adults should accumulate a total of at least 150 minutes per week. People can improve their health by becoming more active. Exercise: Planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body intended to improve or maintain physical fitness. Depend on such physiological factors as the heart's ability to pump blood and the size of muscle fibres. These factors are a function both of genetics—a person's inborn potential for physical fitness—and of behaviour—the amount of exercise a person does to improve fitness. Increased activity = improvements in quality of life and greater reductions in disease and mortality risk. Physical fitness requires more intense movement that poses a substantially greater challenge to the body Benefits of Exercise: - Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning: Regular endurance exercise improves the functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to carry oxygen to body tissues. - More Efficient Metabolism: A physically fit person can more efficiently generate energy, use carbohydrates and fats for energy, and regulate hormones. Also protect cells from damage by free radicals, which are destructive chemicals produced during normal metabolism - Improved Body Composition: Healthy body composition means that the body has a high proportion of fat-free mass and a relatively small proportion of fat - Disease Prevention and Management: o Cardiovascular Disease: Exercise positively affects the risk factors for CVD, including cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, the balance of lipids (fats) that circulate in the blood, enhances the function of cells lining the arteries that help r
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