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Chapter 1

Health Science Chapter 1 Review.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Health Science Chapter 1 Review Social Determinants of Health: - Economic and social conditions that shape the health of the individuals, communities and jurisdictions as a whole - Primary determinants of whether an individual is healthy or become ill - Determine the extent to which a person possesses the physical, social and personal resources to identify and achieve personal aspirations, satisfy needs and cope with environment - Are about the quality and quantity of a variety of resources the society makes available to its members o Resources : conditions of childhood, income, availability/ quality of education, food, housing, employment working conditions and health and social services - Contrasts traditional health sciences and public health focus (i.e. health is not just a personal thing, it has a social aspect to it as well) - Things like what people are exposed to in their homes, workplaces and communities are more important than “lifestyle factors” when it comes to health - These things are not always in our control but are made to seem like they are Historical Perspective on the Social Determinants of Health: - Friedrich Engels: o Studied how poor housing, food clothing etc. was associated with early death among working people in England o Identified material living conditions, day-to-day stress and adoption of health- threatening behaviours as the primary contributors to social class differences in health - Rudolf Virchow: o Identified how health-threatening living conditions were rooted in public policy- making and showed how politics played a role in health o “Father of Modern Pathology”- “disease is not something personal and special, but only a manifestation of life under modified conditions” - British Contributions: o Black Report and Health Divide o Described how lowest employment-level groups showed a greater likelihood of suffering from a wide range of diseases and dying; professionals with best health, labourers with the worst and skilled workers somewhere in the middle o Stimulated study of health inequalities and factors that determine these inequalities, and directed attention to the role that public policy plays - Canadian Contributions: o Theorized the relationship between economic and social conditions and health o A New Perspective on Health: identified human biology, environment, lifestyle and health care organizations as the determinants of health and was important in outlining the determinants outside the health care system o Achieving Health for All: outline reducing inequalities between income groups as an important goal for government policy. This would be done by implementing policies in support of health in social areas o Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) said similar things and then endorsed an action plan to get those things done o Key problems addressed  What are the societal factors that shape health and explain health inequalities?  What are the societal forces that shape quality of the societal factors? What are the Social Determinants of Health? - Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion: peace, shelter, education, food, income, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity - Dahlgren and Whitehead added living and working conditions, unemployment, water and sanitation, and health care services to the list - Health Canada: income, social status, social support networks,
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