Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Chapter 3

Health Science Chapter 3

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Health Science Chapter 3 Review Misleading “Average” Income Reports - Growing incomes= single measure of incomes (the mean) for pop - Canadian families average= $70,300 (2005) from $69,500 (2004) - Shows a continuous increase but keep in mind that it might be misleading as it could be, for example, 6 people making $20,000/year and 1 or 2 $200,000/year which increases the average and skews it Measures of Income Distribution: Market Incomes - Median Incomes: o Indicates the actual income of the middle-income earner in population o Difference between average and median is substantial and has been rising dramatically due more preponderance of very high incomes o Tells us very little about the incomes of those outside of the middle range and nothing about income earners at all - Quintiles: o Quintiles are 20 percent segments o Reported gains in income for Canadian families over time are misleading o Unequally borne by different sections of the population o Losses minimal but can still make a difference - Deciles and Ratios: o Deciles: exploration of greater nuances of life at both margins ( top 10% and bottom 10% of income earners) o In study use a ration of top 10 to bottom 10 o Eventually started to narrow the gap.. stems from eventual improvement of low income four years into an unprecedented economic boom o Currently below 1:100… better but not good - Income Measures across Time: Boom and Bust Cycles o Uses periodic measures of inequality, that of measuring the performance of each decile over time and comparing the performance of different income groups o All groups eventually gain ground after a huge drop (recession) o Recession causes the poor to lose far more earning power than any other group Population Measures of Inequality - Shifting population and exploration of the number of people living at different income levels - Pyramid (poor at bottom and most popular) to apple shape (most people middle class and less people wealthy or poor) to concave vase/rotten (eaten) apple shape (lots of wealthy or poor and little middle class) Taxes and Transfers: Establishing Our Lived Experiences - Government transfers provide them with additional income through pensions, welfare, and unemployment benefits and taxes reduce incomes that people end up with as governments remove taxes in order to pay for essential services and the transfers noted earlier - Have an equalizing effect as they raise the incomes of those at the bottom (transfers) and lower the incomes at the top (taxes) - Redistributive effect dramatically reduces inequality, and is significant and progressive - However, this becoming less significant as time goes on - Government has become increasingly tolerant of income inequality and are reducing the levers that promote income equality
More Less

Related notes for Health Sciences 1002A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.