Health Sciences 1002A/B Canadian Policy Frameworks.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Jessica Polzer

1002A Health Science Constructions of Health in Canadian Policy Frameworks September 13, 2012 Health as a Social Product • Health is a social product • Health varies in relation to:  How resources are distributed (financially, socially)  How power is distributed Demographic Transition • Demographics is the study of populations • Transition from high fertility and high mortality to low fertility and low mortality Landmark Study • Thomas McKeown – What caused rise of modern population? What were the determinants of health in the 19 century?  He was a physician, studied this demographic transition • Retrospective analysis • Death rates and mortality rates started to decrease, and populations started to increase • Population changes start for three reasons: low mortality rates, birth rates, immigration • Conclusion – Decline in mortality form infectious disease driven by improved economic conditions • The rise of population was not due to medicine, but instead to overall improvements in standards of living But… • Economic growth cannot explain the fall in mortality rates on its own • What else was necessary • Organized public health efforts – e.g., improvements to sanitation (e.g. provision of clean water and waste disposal) • Improved sanitation voted as the medical breakthrough that provided the greatest benefit to human health in BMJ Public Health • Policies, programs and service designed to keep citizens healthy and to improve the quality of life. The focus is on enhancing the health status and well-being of the general population rather than just looking at the health of the individual persons WHO Definition of Health (1947) • Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity (WHO, 1947) • This is an example of a positive definition of health Canadian Contributions to the Conceptualization of Health 1. Lalonde Report 2. Ottawa Charter 3. Health Promotion Movement 4. Population Health Approach  Health promotion was linked to the Ottawa Charter Canadian Policy Frameworks for Health • Policy frameworks determine what is a priority for government, and what is a priority for government resources  The Lalonde Report  Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion  Population Health Approach The Lalonde Report (1974) • Presented a “new perspective” on the health of Canadians and how health should be distributed throughout health society • Health field concept – 4 components The four components are: 1. Human Biology – genetics, viruses (anything within the body) 2. Environment – pollution, climate change, could be physical, and social environment 3. Lifestyle – behaviours (personal habits – smoking, drinking) 4. Health Care Services and Organization – are the number of services adequate for the population, are there enough health care workers, are health services organized in a way that promotes the treatment of sickness and disease Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986
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