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Chapter 5

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 5 Textbook Notes 3112012 93200 PM CaloriesKilocalories expresses amount of energy in food Kilocal1000 cal Alcohol is not an essential nutrient but supplies energy 7 calgramFatsmost concentrated source of energy as they have 9 calgram Nutrition the science of food and how the body uses itDigestion breaking down foods in gastrointestinal tracts into compounds that the body can absorbCalorie amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 L water by 1 degree CelsiusEating HabitsSugary foods increase serotonin levels in the brain which improve mood ie Women craving chocolate when depressedNo correlation between behaviour and consumption of sugary foods o High sugar foods are served at parties where people tend to be highly stimulated regardless of what they eat sugary or nonsugaryIf looking for a mental boost eating proteinrich foods can help o Proteins contain tyrosine which the body uses to make neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine o Eating proteinrich foods can increase synthesis of these neurotransmitters which ultimately speeds up rxn time and alertnessFats2 fats linoleic acid and alphalinoleic acid o help maintain blood pressure and progress of pregnancyStructureo Glycerol an alcohol3 fatty acid chainstriglycerideo Within a triglyceride the differing fatty acid chains determine type of fat TermsTransfatty acid type of unsaturated fatty acid made during hydrogenation trans fats have atypical shape that affects their chemical activityo Food manufacturers use hydrogenation to increase stability of oil so it can be reused for deepfrying and improve texture of some foods and extend shelf life of foods with oil in them o The more solid a hydrogenated oil is the more saturated and trans fats it contains FatsTo decrease heart disease choose unsaturated fats over saturated and trans fats The more liquida unsaturated fat rather than a saturated or trans fatPolyunsaturated fatso Omega 3 fish tuna canola oillowers risk for CVD lowers risk for blood clotting inflammation and abnormal heart rhythmso Omega 6 corn soy bean cotton seed oilslowers cholesterol and LDL and HDL levels lower risk for heart diseaseTo limit fat intake and saturated fat eat skinless meat lean meatAMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangesmonitor adequate intake of essential nutrients while also reducing risk of chronic diseases ie Heart disease cancer
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