Cells and Tissues Lecture Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

HS 2300BAnatomy Lecture 2 January 16, 2014 RegionalAnatomy vs. SystemicAnatomy • 200 different pairs of cells in the body • 4 different type of tissues that make up the human body • RegionalAnatomy – usually done on cadavers  Studying one area that extracting out of cadaver  When dissecting whole cadaver: studying all of the systems  Can’t take away all muscles to study the bones and vs. need to study all the systems that you see • SystemicAnatomy – preferred way to teach anatomy  Studying individual systems – looking at each in isolation (i.e., just looking at bones)  Ex.Ankle bone in muscular section  Need to have foundation of bones  Each are going to have a muscular attachment Anatomical Nomenclature • Anatomical Language  Clear communication and consistency  Using anatomical directions (always use the patient’s direction), regions, and landmarks  I.e., Direction – stab wound is on the right  Don’t usually use left and right  Ex. Proximal TheAnatomical Position • Important to have a “position”  Akin to having a 3D compass N, S, E, W … plus up/down  Directions, movements, and relationships  Medial to lateral – draw line through center of the body - axis of symmetry  Equal left to right halves  Internally we are NOT symmetrical (ex. Digestive system, the heart)  If any system is closer to the center – medial  If any system is further from midline – lateral  Superior (closer to heart), inferior (closer to toes) - DO NOT use up and down  Proximal (  Axial bones – make up the trunk of body (the core) – ex. Rib bones  Appendicular bones – appendages  Limb – closer to axial system – more proximal  Further from axial system you go – more distal  Anterior – towards the chest  Posterior – towards the back Planes of Reference • Frontal or Coronal Plane  Interchangeable terms  Coronal – more recent term than frontal  This plane separates the body in an anterior and posterior section  Can move in a parallel fashion throughout the body or within the tissue • Midsagittal Plane – separates the body into left and right halves; it is directly on the midline – but this plan can move, and once it moves you are going to have an unbalance between the left and right side which is what is called a sagittal plane • Text uses parasagittal plane, but more commonly referred to as the midsagittal plane • Transverse Plane or Horizontal Plane – separates the body into a superior and inferior direction Coronal Plane Sagittal Plane • Sternum (anterior) • Cerebral column (posterior) • Right sides • Moves from right to left side Transverse Plane • Head  shoulder  pelvis  legs  feet  toes Regions of the Body • The planes allow us to describe the view they are having • From the side sagittal or top or bottom is transverse • This information organizes how you are going to be learning anatomy in what context and description of anatomy and how you are going to pass it along to someone else • Related to nomenclature • Regions are sometimes not clearly defined • This slide is 80% of anatomy*** • Some relationship to the region in which they sit • I.e., Facial region – facial expression muscles – referencing to the area in which these muscles are activating • Lumbar region (back) – muscles, nerves in this region are often referred to as lumbar structures or plaxes • Gluteal region – the muscles gluteus minimus etc. – the region in which these muscles are positioned • Patella region (bone that sits in the front of the knee) – named accordingly • Back of the knee – Popliteal region • Textbook: SurfaceAnatomy – using the skin to identify structures under them Body Cavities • Protect vital organs • Help to regionally organize the human body • Mostly have to do with the axial region of the body (head and trunk) • In each of these cavities, you have critical organs and they are protected within these cavities • Two primary cavities of the axial skeleton (head and trunk) are the dorsal (cranial and vertebral cavity) cavity (you have the brain and spinal cord) – • Ventral Cavity – include everything in blue and green on diagram; can be split down further into: Thoracic cavity (thoracic bones with the thoracic ribcage – anything underneath the ribs is part of the thoracic cavity)  Right pleural cavity  Mediastinum: contains pericardial cavity  Left pleural cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity  Abdominal Cavity  Pelvic Cavity  The majority of the digestive system is contained in the abdominal cavity Body Compartments • Separated by joints and fascia • Share developmental origin • Share similar function and innervation • Thigh: 3 Compartments  Medial  Anterior  Posterior  As you move distally, they move because the muscles get bigger or small and depending where you are the compartments will look different  They are not included at every single level of the compartment • Lower Leg: 3 Compartments  Lateral  Anterior  Posterior  You don’t have a medial compartment, you have a lateral  Each of these compartments has a specific innervation – if you highlight a compartment in terms of knowing what’s in it, the innervation should be fairly straightforward • Muscles: learn attachments, functions, and innovation of that muscle – 600 muscles – easy way to understand the innovations = in one compartment, you have one nerve that runs through that compartment and innovates all the muscles part of that compartment. Muscles in that compartment share a common function. Each has an embryonic similarity – originate from the similar tissue – guides what that structure will become and what they will do • Ex. What is the innervation to the bicep muscle – biceps is located in the anterior compartment of the arm – all of the muscles in the anterior arm are innervative by the muscular containius nerve – how did you know this? Organize the body through compartments and cavities and regions to narrow it to the best guess • The thigh runs from the knee to the hip Body Organization • In this course we start at the tissue level because we can actually see it • Macromolecules include DNA, RNA, lipids – all the big players that make up cells – how they come together really determine what a cell does • Around 200 different types of cells in the body – cells of common function (don’t have to be the same) contribute to a tissue and that is where this course begins Body Organization:Atoms make Cells Body Organization: Cells Make Tissues • There are only 4 tissues • These four tissues, starting with the order importance 1. Nervous Tissues 2. Epithelial Tissue 3. Connective Tissue – connects the muscle fibres together as a solid structure that can move bones 4. Muscle Tissue • They come together to form organs • At the organ level (after tissues), whether it is a heart, pancreas, a muscle, all comprise of four tissues • Every organ has FOUR tissues Basic Tissues1: Epithelia • Most complicated of the tissues • Has a diverse functions • It is a covering tissue – the outer lining • It IS true, but it serves a much more important role than just a covering • **Amore appropriate description is a diffusion-like barrier – really controls what moves from one system to the next • Many types in the body:  Classification uses a 2 name system  First name indicates layering  Second name indicates shape • Layers  Simple = 1 layer  Stratified = multilayers (many stacks on stacks of epithelial cells – which what make up epithelial tissue)  Pseudostratified  The nuclei are dispersed unevenly through the single layer – there are many layers because of the appearance of the nuclei, but there is only one layer • Shape  Squamous = squashed..wider than they are tall (*scale-like – because these flat cells have a rigid appearance to them)  Cuboidal = cube… as wide as they are tall  Columnar = column...taller than they are wide • Ex. Simple cuboidal epithelial cell • You will have a simple squamous epithelial cells so the transmission of gases can occur regularly in the alveoli – but it still monitors what moves through – it will not transmit • Ex. Simple cuboidal – single layer of cube-like cells – usually involved in absorption or secretion – in these areas, you are most likely to find simple cuboidal or simple columnar • Stratified – levels of protection to gage or monitor or protect the diffusion of toxins, gases and blocking them from systems • The skin is made up of stratified squamous • Stratified cuboidal or stratified columnar are areas that need protection (pharynx or throat) – need thicker layers (to secrete mucus that adds the chemical breakdown mechanically) – ducts and glands – harmful situations and need tough regions to withstand these substances to move outside where they need to • Cells are closely opposed (cell junctions) • Form surface linings and most glands – barrier between two systems • Epithelial tissue is avascular but innervated – avascular means it is without vascularization – no vessel to move into the cell – there are nerves that penetrate into the cell (never in yellow), but the vascular does not provide blood to the epithelial cell – if you had vascular supply to the cell, the toxin that it took could easily move into the vessel – the epithelial cell acts as a “guard” • Nerves innervate these epithelial cells – they secrete – when you’re at a high glucose level, your blood secretes insulin to bring the sugar into the tissues • Ex. In order to secrete insulin, the epithelial cells need a signal and this is controlled by innervation • Ex. The salivary glands secrete chemicals that break down food before going through stages of the digestive system – occurs automatically • Cells are polarized (apical-vs-basal) – polarized means that are not symmetrical – if you study the apical (apex of the cell – the point) or the basal (basement of the cell) you can see that they are very different – you may bsee the nucleus at the basement of the cell – the illustration (in lecture) tries to show it but it is towars the basement – these cells are exposed to harmful substances (i.e., radiation if you look at the skin – UV radiation can do some harmful effects to the skin.. so it makes sense that the nucleus is far away from the exposed region) • High regenerative capacity (very important!) – because they regenerate quickly but it is very controlled – when a substance or agent (i.e., ra
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