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Human Anatomy Text Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2330A/B

Human Anatomy 9/11/2013 4:43:00 PM Chapter 2- Cells Cell biology/Cytology- The study of cell structure and function Compartmentalization- How chemical reactions in the cell are separated: the isolation of specific kinds of chemical reactions within specialized membrane- enclosed structures inside the cell 2.1 A Generalized Cell- Name and describe the three principal parts of a cell 1. Plasma Membrane: Forms the cells flexible outer surface - separates internal from external environment - selective barrier (regulates flow of material into and out of the cell) - key role in communication among cells and between cells and their external environments 2. The cytoplasm- all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus - two components: the cytosol and the organelles - cytosol: the fluid portion of the cytoplasm, contains water, solutes and suspended particles 3. The nucleus- Houses most of the cell’s DNA - contains chromosomes: a single molecule of DNA associated with several proteins, contains 1000’s of hereditary units called genes 2.2 The Plasma Membrane- Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane and outline the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane Described as the fluid mosaic model- The proteins may float freely or anchored at specific locations - lipids act as a barrier to the passage of various substances, while some proteins in the plasma membrane act as gatekeepers Structure of the membrane- Lipid Bilayer (phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids) Two types of membrane proteins 1. Integral proteins: extend into or through the lipid bilayer and are firmly embedded in it. Most integral proteins are Transmembrane proteins, they span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and extracellular fluid - many integral proteins are glycoproteins, proteins with carbohydrate groups attached to the ends that protrude into the extracellular fluid. The carb portions of the glycolipids and glycoproteins form an extensive sugary coat called the Glycocalyx Glycocalyx- Acts like a molecular signature that enables cells to recognize one another 2. Peripheral proteins- Not as firmly embedded into the membrane and are attached to membrane lipids or integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membrane. Functions of Membrane Proteins: -ion channels - carriers and transporters - receptors for cell recognition: Ligand- a specific molecule that binds to a receptor - some integral proteins are enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inside or outside surface of the cell - integral/peripheral proteins may serve as linkers: proteins that anchor the plasma membrane of neighboring cells to one another or to protein filaments inside and outside the cell - membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids often serve as cell-identify markers: enabling a cell to (1) recognize other cells of the same kind during tissue for
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