Health science 2700 reading 1.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

Health science 2700­ lecture 1 reading  Human development as a scientidic, applied, and interdisciplinary field   Research about development has been stimulated by social pressures to improve ppl’s lives  The medical profession needed and understanding of physical growth, nutrition, and disease  Social service professions desire to treat emotional problems, required info about personality and development  Human development is interdisciplinary: grew through combination of efforts from people of all fields Basic issues   A Theory is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behaviour.  Good theories: describe, explain, and predict consequences  Ex, good theory of infant caregiver attachment, describes behaviours of babies of age 6- 8 months as they seek affection, explain how and why they develop desire to bond and predict consequences of the emotional bonds  Theories provide organizing frameworks for our observations of ppl guiding and giving meaning to what we see  When a theory allows us to understand development we can work on improving the welfare of others  Theories existence depends on scientific verification, findings must endure or be replicated over time Continuous or discontinuous development?  One view holds infants and preschoolers respond to the world like adults do, however the difference b/t the immature and mature is one amount of complexity – if this is the case then change in thinking must be continuous.  Continuous: a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with – belive development is a smooth continuous process, individusals gradually add more of the same types of skills  Second view – children have a unique way of thinking, feeling and behaving ones different from adults. This is discontinuous development: a process in which new and different ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times- people change rapidly as they step to a new level and then change very little for a while. With each step, the person interprets and responds to the world in diff. ways  Occus instanges – qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development; like a stair case each step is a more mature and organized stage of life. One course of development or many?   Assumption – children and adults follow same development everywhere  However both live in distinct contexts: combination of personal and environmental circumstances = in different paths  Children and adults from non western have different experiences than those is western; thus have different intellectual capabilities Relative influence of Nature or Nurture?   By nature we mean biological givens – our hereditary information we have from our parents from the moment of conception  Nurture complex forces of the physical and social world that influences our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth  Theorists who emphasize stability – that individuals who are high or low in a characteristic (verbal ability, anxiety, and sociability) will remain so at later ages – typically stress the importance of heredity.  If regard environment as important point to early experiences as establishing life long patten of behaviour The lifespan perspective: A Balance Point of View   Because of improvements in nutrition, sanitation, and medical knowledge grew, life expectancy grew more than it ever did in the past 5000 years – in 1900 it was under 50  Development as a dynamic system – a perpetually ongoing process from conception to death is molded by complex network of biological, psychological, and social influences  A leading dynamic system is the approach of the lifespan perspective  4 assumptions make up this broader view that development is : 1) Lifelong 2) Multidimensional and multidirectional 3) Highly plastic 4) Influenced by multiple interacting forces Development is lifelong   With each period change occurs in three broad domains: Physical, congnitive, and emotional/ social Major periods of development Period Approximate Brief description age range Prenatal Conception- birth One celled organism transforms into a human baby with remarkable capacities to adjust outside the womb Infancy&toddlerhood Birth-2years Dramatix changes in the body and brain support the emergence of a wide array of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities and first intimate ties to others Early childhood 2-6 Play years – motor skills refined, thougth& language expand, moratility is evident, established ties to peers Middle childhood 6-11 School years are marked by advanced athletic abilities, logical thought process, basic literacy skills, understanding self, morality, and friendship Adolenscence 11-18 Puberty leads to an adult sized body, and sexual maturity. Thought becomes abstact and idealistic and school achievement more serious. Ado, focus on defining personal values and goals and establishing autonomy form the family Early adulthood 18-40 Leave home, complete education, begin fulltime work. Major concerns – developing career, forming an intimate partnership marrying rearing children, or establishin other lifestyles Middle adulthood 40-65 Height of careers attain leadership, positions. Must help children behin independent lives of their parents. Become more aware of their own morality Late adulthood 65-death People adjust to retirement, to decreased physical strength and health, and often to the death of a spouse. Reflect on meaning of their lives Development is multidimensional and multidirectional?   Multidimensional- affected by an intricate blend of biological and psychological social forces  Multidirectional- at every period, development is a joint expression of growth and decline Development is plastic   Intellectual performance remains flexible with age – experiences you have allow you to grow as a person  Metaphor of a butterfly – metamorphosis and continued development – provides ab accurate image of lifespan  Development becomes less plastic as capacity and opportunity for change are reduced Development is influenced by multiple, interacting forces  Development is influenced by many forces: historical, social, cultural, and biological.  Age -graded influences – events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last are called age-graded influences. Ex- experience menopause in the late 40’s and early 50s. – influenced by biology however social cultural create age grade differences as well – starting school  History graded influences – epidemics, wars, and periods of economic prosperity. Introduction of tv, computers and internet. These history – graded influences explain why ppl around the same time – called cohort – tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from ppl born at other times  Normative influences – normative = typical or average. Top two influences are normative b/c affects large numbers of ppl. Normative influences events that are irregular- they happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow predictable timetable  Life span view of development – like tree branches extending in diverse directions Scientific beginnings  Darwin: forefather of scientific child study   Contructed theory of evolution from observations of many species noticing no two speices are aliek  Two related princples: natural selection, survival of the fittest  Certain species survive in particular environmetns because they have characteristics that fit with, or adapt to surroundings  These species live long to reproduce and pass on their beneficial characterisitcis The normative period  G. Stanley Hall – most influential American psychologist of 20 century – founder of child study movement  Hall was inspired by darwins work – hall and his student, Arnold Gesell, devised theoires based on evolutionary ideas  Regarded development as a genetically determined process that unfolds automatically, much like a flower  Launched the normative approach: measures behaviour are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age related averages are computed to represent typical development The Mental testing movement   Alfred Binet was also taking a normative approach  Binet and collegue Theodore simone – asked to find ways to identify children with learning problems for placement in special classes  Contructed first successful intelligence test  Stranford- binet intelligence scale – sparked interest in individual differences in development Mid­Twentieth Century Theories   Human development expanded into a real discipline The psychoanalytic perspective   This perspective looks at how people move through a series of stages which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How the conflicts are resolved derermines the individuals ability to learn and to cope with anxiety  Freuds theory – on the basis of observing his patients unconscious motivation he came up with the psychosexual theory: emphasized how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives in first years is critical for healthy personality development - Id, ego, super ego big parts of his theory - Id – the largest portion of the mind, source of basic biological needs and desires - Ego – conscious, rational part of the personality emerges in early infancy – redirects ids impulses so they are let out on appropriate objects - Superego – (3-6) develops through interactions with parents who want child to conform to the values of society - Relationship between id, ego, and superego determine personality Psychosexual stage Age period Description Oral 0-1 Ego directs babys sucking activities toward breast or bottle. Oral needs not met individuals develop habits like thumb sucking, fingerbiting, pencil chewing Anal 1-3 Enjoy holding andn releasing urine and feces- toilet training becomes major issue- if parents insist child be trained before ready or make too few demands
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