Childhood and Development Lecture Notes (1).docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

Childhood and Development Lecture Notes Lecture 7 - Adolescence I, the Normative Model Hormonal Changes in Puberty • Growth hormone and thryoxine increase around age 8-9 • Estrogens more in girls, adrenal estrogens • Androgens more in boys, testosterone Gender Differences in Body Growth during Adolescence Sexual Maturation • Primary sexual characteristics (maturation of the reproductive organs) -girls: menarche -boys: spermarche • Secondary Sexual Characteristics (other parts of the body that signal sexual maturity) -girls: breasts -boys: facial hair, voice change -both: underarm + “other” bodily hair -there is an overlay b/w biology and society– how hormonal growth is seen -go through different experiences; one that we experience at 12 years old will be different than when we’re 17 Individual Differences in Timing of Puberty • Heredity • Nutrition, exercise -body fat, leptin in girls • Geographical location • SES • Family experiences • Secular trend • When puberty happens – it is NOT a universal experience: depends on who you are, where you are, family history Reactions to Puberty: a gendered phenomenon Berk’s Perspective boys can gain more support if they talked to people more (about the changes they’re undergoing) Emotional Responses to Puberty • More negative life events • Stronger responses • Less stable moods – related to daily events • Could be a volatile life for some people Moody Blues • Common perception that adolescence is very moody • When most kids are teenagers, their parents are middle aged • Often a lot of tension b/w young people and their families Adolescent Emotions: what a difference a day makes -transitions in mood/emotions during the week between middle and junior high and high schools kids -during the weekends, the moods are heightened Parent-Child Relationships • Rise in conflict -psychological distancing -different views of teen readiness for responsibility • Most conflict is mild -also affection, support • In general, these young people are growing up and it’s difficult (from a parent’s point of view) Parent-Child Relationships in Adolescence • Autonomy -de-idealize parents -shift from parents to self and peers for guidance • Authoritative Parenting -balances autonomy with monitoring as needed -extra challenging during adolescence • Things parents need to re-value : balance b/w autonomy & discipline Consequences of Timing of Puberty -chart is looking at some of the consequences of puberty (ex: early maturing girls) -girls who develop early are kind of withdrawn (complete opposite of boys who start to develop earlier) Factors in Reactions to Timing of Puberty • Physical attractiveness – body image -girls: most want to be thinner, smaller -boys: most want to be bigger • Fitting in with peers -prefer similar level of physical maturity • Danger in the repetition of these unhealthy images that are impossible to attain Aren’t there more than two genders? How is this time experienced by GLBTQ youth? • Feeling different – ages 6 to 12 • Confusion – 11 to 15 • Self-acceptance – timing varies • A very complex and often scary time of life—the recent and on-going rash of suicides and murders of these youth • not everyone likes to be categorized as a M or F ( could be queer, transsexual, etc) • for the LGBTQ, stages are more difficult (ex : feeling different, confusion etc) because of the dominant constructs of society Talking to Adolescents about sex • foster open communication • use correct terms • listen, discuss, collaborate • think before talking • keep conversations going • LISTEN before you judge (shows person you actually care & not just jumping down their throat) Characteristics of Sexually Active Adolescents: really? General outcomes of adolescents who become sexually active early -what sex means to one person may not mean the same to other people -sexually active could mean just one time, or having a steady partner -most of the outcomes of early sexual activity are seen as being negative  leading to future deviant behaviour, poor outcomes, low school performance Adolescent Pregnancy Statistics Risks and Prevention strategies for teen mothers • Risks -less educational achievement -more time as single parents -economic problems -pregnancy and birth complications • Prevention Ideas -more sex education -skills for handling sexual situations -promoting abstinence -info & access to contraceptives -academic & social competence Characteristics of Adolescent Friendships • Fewer “best friends” • Stress intimacy, loyalty -closeness, trust, self-disclosure • Friends are similar or get more similar -identity status -aspirations -politics -deviant behavior Gender Differences in adolescent friendships • Girls -emotional closeness, mutual concerns -get together to “just talk”  self-disclosure -focus on emotional consequence & getting to know each other on an emotional level (talk a lot) • Boys -achievement, status -get together for activities -intimacy related to gender identity Friendships can also be affected by gender intensification: how?? • Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior • Biological, social, cognitive factors • More in early adolescence, declines mid to late adolescence • Gender plays a huge role in how people move, behave in their relationships Benefits of Adolescent Friendships • Opportunities to explore self, during your teen years you tend to withdraw from your parents and you start to develop closer relationships with your friends – you don’t want to tell your parents everything • Form deep understanding of another person • Foundation for future relationships • Help deal with life stresses • Can improve attitude toward and involvement in school Cliques and Crowds • Clique -small group (5-7) -good friends -identified by interests, social status  “popular” and “unpopular” • Crowd -larger  several cliques -membership based on reputation, stereotype From Cliques to Dating • Boys and girls cliques come together • Mixed-sex cliques hang out • Several couples form and do things together • Individual couples Changes in Dating • Goals change throughout adolescence -early: recreation, group activities, shallow intimacy -gradually look for more intimacy • Relations with parents, friends contribute adolescent’s • Many “firsts” happen while dating Dating Problems • Dating too early -drug use, sex, delinquency -poor academics -abuse -mental health problems • For GLBTQ youth -finding partners -peer harassment, rejection What else to adolescents do, globally?  NOT universal Some of the problems during adolescence: depression • Most common psychological problem of adolescence- 15-20% • Twice as many girls as boys -early-maturing girls -gender intensification • Factors -genetics -child-rearing practices -learned helplessness • A lot of mental issues are first experienced -everything is gendered Adolescent Suicide • Includes attempts, thinking about it • Girls tend to try commiting suicide/thinking about it more than boys (very gendered) • A leading cause of death for North American youth • Related factors -gender -ethnicity -family environment -sexual orientation -mental disorders -life stress -personality: intelligent, withdrawn / antisocial, impulsive • DRUGS.. the legal kind.. generation RX Preventing Suicide • Notice warning signs • Provide adult and peer support • Teach coping strategies • Interventions -Medication- caution -Therapy -Remove access to means -Being mindful of how to read behaviour (really helpful in providing support) Adolescent Substance Users VS Abusers • More antisocial, impulsive acts • Start earlier • More likely to be affected by genetic and environmental factors Eating Disorders • Anorexia nervosa -starve out of fear of getting fat • Bulimia nervosa -strict diet and exercise, binge and purge • Power, control, gender Factors in Delinquency • Peers -rejection, antisocial peers • Gender • Individual differences -temperament -intelligence -school performance • family characteristics • neighbourhood Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency • Early-onset  behavior begins in middle childhood -biological risk factors and child-rearing practices combine • Late-onset behavior beings around puberty -peer influences th Nov 6 2012 FILM: Deadly Desires • 30% of teens have confirmed that they have had sex without a condom • 1 in 4 teens will contract an STD • Teen boys have more pressure to have sex than teen girls • Getting involved in a sexually relationship during such a vulnerable time in our lives can be risky • The assumption that it’s ok to have unprotected sex if you’re in a committed relationship • 40,000 new cases of HIV are diagnosed every year o Of those people 3/5 are infected as teenagers • Common in US: Chlamydia o Can produce painful symptoms o Lead to infertility to men & women • Genital warts: viral; can never be curable • We must take responsibility of our own actions • Risks are situational Lecture 9 – “Other” Adolescent Experiences Male youth street culture: pavis and Cunningham-burley (1999) • Setting the stage -growing concern about youth, especially young men, and how they spend their leisure time -ie drinking, smoking, doing drugs, hanging out, nuisance • The media attention and piecemeal policy responses reflect the “moral panic” that surrounds these young people and their behaviour • Much of the literature published focuses on individual “high risk” behaviours as the problem -vs a more contextualized understanding of the complexities of the specific youth culture and the place of their health-relevant behaviours within the matrix of their activities and associated meanings • “seaview” is anonymized (real name of community researched is not given- usually to protect the community) • These researchers wanted to understand the meanings and motivations of young people on the streets • Allows them to gain insight into the diverse, shifting, and value-laden contexts in which the youths’ health-related behaviour occurs • They demonstrate important links between their street culture and their health -ie includes the role of immediate and broader socio-economic and psychological factors • Methodology -part of a larger mixed methods (qualitative + quantitative) project that followed 106 male youth from the completion of high school into post-secondary -they narrowed their focus for subsequent analysis to the issue of leisure time -hanging out is when they were most likely to smoke, drink, and experiment with drugs -quantitative  more service type research • Methods: ethnography -ethnography: literally, it means “a description of a people or ethnic group”.. study of people, also refers to fieldwork -it also refers to the descriptions that we write of people we study, which are called ethnographies (when published as books) -our fieldwork is also referred to as ethnography -how to determine stats of this culture -ethnography is a “multi local term”; means many things and stands for many things • Methods: participant-observation -researcher joins the group and spends a significant amount of time observing their interactions and participating in as many domains of social life as possible -male youth worker conducted 70hr of fieldwork, mainly on Friday and Saturday nights -street corners, outside chip shops, bus shelters, public transport, free-houses, raves -tried to learn as much about these young people by engaging in activities that young people engage in • Some dilemmas about fieldwork -there’s never a clear-cut way to gain access to the field site and relevant population -the role of intimidation, allegations, feeling uncomfortable, sticking out -it’s always a good idea to start slow and let people get used to your presence (mixture of curiosity, possible hostility, and “the intrigue factor” -ethical concerns (need to be revised, revisited, and addressed daily) • Developing rapport -Making good rapport is about more than being nice, it is also about being aware of how you are being perceived and how you are being compared to other foreigners or researchers (e.g. the mythic qualities of White women up north and in india) • Some additional components good rapport: (developing relationships/trust) -aligning yourself with well-respected community members -not appearing to be withdrawn or ‘snobby’ -being careful about your ‘gift’ distribution patterns (ie money, material goods, and your time) -being curious but not too nosy -finding ways to ensure that you are not a threat to anyone or a particular group of people in the research setting (I’m not after anyone’s man) Findings: ‘seaview’ • Excerpts from the authors’ fieldnotes -very good in setting the scene -also good in demonstrating what fieldnotes look like • Findings: leisure and excitement -seaview is “shit”, “boring,” “dull” -but these young people also clearly derived significant excitement from their leisure time -through spending time on the streets, the researchers were able to understand how their life could be both boring and exicitng: they often just stood around doing nothing, their conversations were repetitive and predicatable, unpredictable because something could happen at any time, prospects of violence, drinking, smoking, and doing drugs, humour (read excerpt) • Findings: alcohol -drinking was very common (beer and vodka, often added to cans of soft drinks) -it was closely related to their desire to have fun, excitement and a laugh -they were more confident and boisterous (aggressive behaviour, violence, disorderly conduct) • Findings: drug use -pot was the main drug used -like booze, weed was interwoven into the young men’s desire to create excitement and to elevate their social status within the street culture -this finding highlights the importance of understanding the multiple roles played by behaviours/substances that are too often labelled as “dangerous”, “deviant” or “unhealthy” -Understanding how people use drugs- designing an intervention or program that can alleviate the risks around drug use • Findings: smoking cigarettes -two important and distinct aspects of the youths’ use of cigarettes -as a prop to engaged in conversation or interaction (with
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