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Chapter 4

Health Sciences 3040A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Expectancy Theory, Belongingness, Tranche

4 pages56 viewsWinter 2013

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 3040A/B
Shannon Sibbald

of 4
Health Sciences 3040B: Healthcare Management
Chapter #4: Motivating People
Emphasize that motivation is situation
Motivation and Management
People they have to motivate can range from highly educated to minimum
wage positions
Motivation is a state of feeling or thinking in which one is energized or
aroused to perform a task or engage in a particular behavior
Emotional, cognitive that is independent of action
People can be highly motivated by perform poorly (performance depends
on a ton of things)
Situations shape individual behavior, can have stable motivation with good
Situational and individual factors interact to produce motivation and
Motivation cant be easily produced for the masses, need to focus at
individual level (take each persons situation into account)
Should consider (1) job position or occupation, (2) career stage, or (3)
personal factors
People use money for motivation, but short supply in HC
Managers should access motivation and performance, looking at the 3
things listed above  can alter conditions to promote motivation
The “What” and “How” of Motivation
Many people are energized to work to meet particular needs
A need stimulates someone’s internal drive that direct them toward those
goals that have capacity to satisfy the need
Motivation is goal-directed, internal drive aimed at satisfying needs
Maslow’s needs: psychological needs in the work place would be basic
pay and an adequate working environment
Security would refer to have no layoffs, grievance packages, insurance
and retirement package
Belongingness is outside community and family relationships and friends
on the job
Esteem is the need for recognition or respect from others at the work
Self-actualization is realizing potential for continued growth and individual
Key factors in satisfaction and motivation were achievement, recognition,
the work itself, responsibility, and advancement
Need to have positive company hygiene as well (policy, salaries,
supervision, etc.)
The first drive of motivation is achievement
Second drive is the want of power, to influence others
The third drive is the want of association, the person’s desire to become
part and belong to something (having a social team, participation, etc.)
Process Perspectives
People think a relationship is fair when they perceive that their outcomes
are proportionate to their perceived contributions or inputs
The greater the inequity the greater the motivation to resolve it
Important to note people compare themselves to others in situations
nurses can look at other nurses making $12/hour more, but put less effort
then them
Managers can change perceptions of inequity from among people to keep
people from leaving and shit (can gives raises for example)
People will always compare themselves to others and see the differences
in how their treated which will create a perception
The Power of Expectations
Expectancy theory  assuming that people make rational calculations
about how to expend effort on work, and they make choice that will lead to
desired rewards
Know what rewards they want from work and know that their performance
will dictate how much they will actually get
Job outcomes (pay raises, promotions, etc.) and negative experience is
the first component
Valences are individual feelings about job outcomes
Instrumentality is the third component, which is the belief that their job
outcome is dependent upon their performance
 if raises depend on accounting rather than filing, then instrumentality is
higher for accounting
Expectancy  how hard they try and how well they do?
Motivation is the end result of instrumentality, valence, and expectancy
(people are motivated by a combination of these)
Incentives/rewards should be attractive to employees, rules for attaining
these rewards must be clear, and must perceive their efforts will get the
Goal Setting and Feedback
A goal is defined as something that an individual is consciously trying to
A goal provides guidelines for how much effort to put into work (where
they exert most of their effort to get their goal)
Specific difficult goals lead to better performance than specific, easy,
vague goals
Feedback is critical as well (more effective)
People need both goals and progress to be motivated along the way
Motivating Health Care Professionals
Helpful when persuading clinicians to abandon detrimental behaviors such
as excessive use of resources
One-shot approaches to change behavior don’t work with doctors
Guidelines and handouts do little as well to change behavior of doctors
Monetary incentives also do little to change doctor behavior as well
Providing bonuses to be efficient can slash quality which is not good, no
good sir

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