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Chapter 3

Attribution Analysis of Outcome - Chapter 3.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B

Attribution Analysis of Outcome November 21, 2011 Incentive Goal Setting Activity Outcome Attribution Expectation Self-confidence Outcome: the result of an event that is interpreted as either success or failure Analysis: use of previous experience, expectations, perceptions, and the impact of external factors to assess an outcome Attribution: the cause or explanation given to an outcome Outcome Post Event Analysis Attribution THE A TTRIBUTION P ROCESS Or Start: Event Explanation Motivation for Pride/Shame Subsequent Participation Future Expectations Results of Attributions:  Pride or shame (causality)  Satisfaction or dissatisfaction  Expectancy for future performance success/failure (stability)  Motivation for subsequent participation (control) = dimensions of attribution: Basic Attribution Categories Stability Locus of Causality Locus of Control Stable Unstable Internal External In My Control Out of My Control Stable = ability, task difficulty Unstable = effort, luck, mood Internal = (personal) ability, effort, training External = (situational) luck, ease or difficulty of task, officiating Control = increased or decreased motivation Most people are self-centered in their perception of cause Success is usually attributed to internal personal characteristics (ability, effort, mood) Failure is usually attributed to external situational characteristics (task difficulty, luck, others) Explanation of why we perceive the outcome of an event the way we do. 1. To enhance of maintain self-esteem 2. The desire for social approval 3. To maintain control or mastery over the situation 4. The need to process information logically 5. The belief in a just world by making unacceptable behaviour more acceptable Results of Various Attributions 1. Positive outcomes perceived to be the result of internal factors provide pride and satisfaction 2. Negative outcomes perceive to be the result of internal factors produce shame and dissatisfaction 3. Positive outcomes perceived to be the result of stable factors produce the greatest expectancy for future success 4. Negative outcomes perceived to be the result of stable factors produce lower expectancies for future success 5. Mastery-oriented children who attribute failure to unstable factors react with renewed effort, persistence, and dedication (cause is lack of effort) 6. Those who attribute failure to stable factors react with less
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