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Nervous System.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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Adrian Owens Research Nervous System Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System is broken down into a component called the somatic division.  Stretch information is received to the CNS through the somatic division in PNS.  Allows connectivity with CNS Hierarchical Organization of the Central Nervous system: *Classic View: *The Hierarchy: Not Think of the Cerebral Cortex as the “big boss”, it tells everyone else what to do and when to do it entirely Think of the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, and cerebellum as being second in correct command The brainstem is third in command  All signals must travel through brainstem to get to spinal cord  It’s a relay. Just conveys information Watch diving  Doesn’t do anything in terms of modifying signals bell and butterfly The spinal cord is a “slave” system to all the above. When someone has a problem with their cerebral cortex, they cannot do precision movements but on power (gross) movement  Can only move hands and fingers at same time. Can’t pitch. If brainstem is lesion, become locked-in. Because no signals can be sent to spinal cord, you know what is going on around you but cant respond.  Appear dead Luigi Galvani (18 Century): Was interested in how muscles contract  Before it was believed that movement would occur by fluid in the body moved Attached lightening rod to spinally prepared frogs and when there was a thunderstorm, the frog would move. The Neuron: It is believed that when young learn new skill, they develop more neurons In adults, it is a new neural pathway to cause movement.  This is done by more dendrite and axon terminals  This is done by repeated practice Myelin Sheath: allows for quicker electrical travel  Different types of neuron, have different thickness allowing for different speeds of conduction Motor unit: Neuron and all muscle fibers in contact AMN disease- damage in neuron in motor cortex- cerebral cortex Speed of Nerve Conduction: Helmholtz (1850s):  Interested in speed of nerve conduction  Used isolated muscle and motor nerve of a frog  Measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contraction  He would isolate a muscle in a frog. Would get direct access through CNS through the spinal cord and timed the amount of time needed for the contraction.  He would put the stimulus far away from cell body and close. By knowing how long they took to contract and the differences between the contractions, he could find out how quickly it was travelling.  Very accurate Helmoholtz Findings:  Estimate speed of human nerve conduction  Measured reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to two points (e.g. foot, thigh)  Nerve conduction velocity very fast (35-60 m/s)  That speed is about 1/10 the speed of sound (speed of sound= 1238 km/h) Diseases of the nerve: 1. Disease of the nerve influences amplitude of nerve conduction Alpha  E.g. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or more commonly referred motor to as Lou Gehrig’s disease disease is  Alpha motor neurons are sent more slowly also known as a 2. Disease of the myelin influences conduction speed lower  Destroys the myelin in patches along the CNS motor  E.g. multiple sclerosis disease Different types of Neurons: Upper  Differ in direction of travel: up or down motor 1. Motor (efferent) neurons disease arises  Transmit motor commands down the spinal cord 2. Sensory (afferent) neurons from  Transmit signals to, and up, the spinal cord problems in the The Cerebral Cortex/ Cerebrum: neurons within the Phrenology: different parts of your brain reflecting different emotions. Did so by say cortex. if someone was hit with a sword in an area in his head, and he lost his courage: that area related to courage  Bogus: not true Occipital Lobe: The center of our visual perception Contains primary (V1) and secondary visual areas. V1: V1 is about the size of the credit card located in the back of our head. Most visual information in our eyes ends up in V1. Demonstrated phenomena known as cortical magnification Does a very simple basic property of a viewed object More neurons are devoted to center vision over peripheral  Allows us to read and look in high resolution V2: V2 is responsible for binocular vision In V2 there is a class of neurons called binocular disparity neuron  Very specialized neuron which allow use to preserve depth (3D) If prevented from seeing binocular vision  then will not be able to see 3D V3(D) and V3(V): Visual information travels through to V3(D) then travels to the parietal cortex  This visual pathway supports action Visual information travels through to V3(V) to the temporal lobe  This visual pathway for perception  When use vision to make judgment such as that you have cup of coffee/ different colours. V4: Able to identity sim ple geometric shape Someone with a lesion to V4 may not be able to tell the difference between a triag
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