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Kinesiology 1088A/B readings.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Chapter 1 - Introduction Sport exercise psychology - The scientific study of people and their behaviours in sport and exercise contexts and the practical application of that knowledge o Identify principles and guidelines that professionals can use to guide adults and children to participate and benefit from sport - Two Objectives: o A: understand the effects of psychological factors on physical or motor performance Ex. Anxiety bball players free throw o B: understand how sport affects a persons psychological development, health and well-being Ex. Running reduces anxiety and depression? - Research consulting teaching research o Clinical sports psychologists detect and treat in athletes + general pop o Education sport psychology specialists educates athletes and exercisers about psychological skills and their development o Refers to CSP - Choosing from different orientations of sport and exercise psychology: o Psychophysiological orientation best way to study behaviour during sport is through study of brains physiological processes Ex. Heart rate, brain scans o Social-psychological orientation behaviour is a complex interaction between environment and personal makeup of the athlete or exerciser Ex. Leaders style and strategies foster group cohesion o Cognitive-behavioral orientation athletes cognition, thoughts and behaviors are central in determining behavior Ex. Self-confidence - Future trends 1. Increased interest in acquired training and applied jobs 2. Greater emphasis on counseling and clinical training for sport psychologists 3. Ethics and competence issues are receiving greater emphasis 4. Specializations and new sub-specialties are developing 5. Increased tension between practitioners of academic and applied sport psychology 6. Qualitative research methods are receiving more attention 7. Applied sport psychologists have more opportunities but fewer full-time positions 8. SEP has become recognized for considerable utility 9. Field of psychology is experiencing a positive psychology movement focussing on optimism, hope, etc. 10. Embracing globalization is key Chapter 3 - Motivation Motivation direction and intensity of ones effort - Direction of effort individual seeks out, approaches are is attracted to certain situations - Intensity of effort amount of effort person puts forth in a particular situation - Vague definition internal personality characteristic, external influence, consequence or explanation for our behaviour Three approaches to motivation - Trait-centered view (participant centred view) motivated behaviour is a function of individual characteristics o Ex. Athlete born a winner - Situation-centered view motivation is determined by situation o Ex. Likes to workout, but doesnt like to compete - Interactional view motivation is driven by both TCV and SCV o Ex. how athlete copes with losing streak Sorrentino and Sheppard Swimmer study - Studied 44 male and 33 female swimmers - Variables: individually vs. relay, personality characteristics (affiliation motivation + works better individually or in group) - Results: approval oriented swimmers in a relay swam faster o Means that the four fastest individual swimmers are not necessarily the best relay crew Building motivation Five Guidelines 1. Consider both situations and traits in motivating people 2. Understand peoples multiple motives for involvement why are they involved? o Identify why people participate in physical activity Self-determination theory satisfy need to feel competent, autonomous, and belonging People participate for more than one reason People have competing motives for involvement go to gym and also be with family People have both shared and unique motives Gender differences in motivation Cultural emphasis affects motives o Observe participants and continue to monitor motives Observe, informally talk to others, obtain self-reflection 3. Change the environment to enhance motivation o Provide both competition and recreation comp boat + rec boat o Provide multiple opportunities special dry land days enhance team bonding o Adjust to individuals within groups specific workout programs 4. Influence motivation Danielas outgoing athlete positivity 5. Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives join dragon boat to look jacked join dragon boat to be fit Developing a realistic view of motivation easier to create competitive mentality through challenging fit test than promote holistic approach to fitness Understanding achievement motivation and competitiveness - Achievement motivation a persons efforts to master tasks, achieve excellence, overcome obstacles, perform better than everyone and take pride in exercising talent - Competitiveness a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others - Effects of motivation not just the destination, but also the journey, how AM and C affect: o Choice of activity o Effort to pursue goals o Intensity of effort in the pursuit of goals o Persistence in the face of failure and adversity Four theories of achievement motivation what motivates people to act? - Need achievement theory o Personality + Situation = resultant tendency emotional rxns achievement beh o Personality factors perceive success vs. perceive failures o Situational factors ex. tennis vs. Venus Williams o Resultant/behavioral tendencies achievement motive levels in relation to situational factors Ex. if 50/50 high achievers will seek out challenge o Emotional reactions ex. bronze at worlds = medalling on world stage vs. only got bronze o Achievement behavior combination of the previous four Ex. high achievers select challenging tasks, prefer intermediate risks and perform better in evaluative situations o Ex. In Milton Regatta, I focus on how much we will win by, Milton is an easy first regatta with a high probability of success, the result is a winning mentality which focusses on pride and as such I seek out challenging situations and have enhanced performance - Attribution theory how people explain their successes and failures o Stability stable (ability) vs unstable (luck) o Locus of causality internal (effort level) vs external (competition) o Locus of control in ones control (race plan) vs out of ones control (competitions level of conditioning)
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