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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Kinesiology 3388A/B

Sport Psych 3388Chapter 4Group territoryTerritoriality represents a perception of proprietary rights over a physical spacePerceptions of territoriality contribute to group morale and individual satisfactionAlso provides a feeling of permanence and stabilityConsequently all groups work to establish their own territoryTeam logos mascots special locker room areas eating areas clearly identified practice fieldsFor many sports teams the stadium rink soccer pitch grounds or court become so intertwined with identity of the team its difficult to separate themThe groups territory has an influence on both intra and extragroup membersEg the layout or physical structure of a teams territory can influence interaction between fans and athletesEg the sport teams territory can provide it with advantages during competitionIn amateur sport the problems posed by home teams territory can be even greaterThe Nature of TerritorialityIndividual TerritoryEarliest work carried out in social psychology on territoriality focused on personal distanceEdward Hall 1966Proposed that when interactions occur in dyads four types f interpersonal distance zones are possible1Intimate Zone2CasualPersonal Zone3SocialConsultative Zone4Public Distance ZoneTable 41 The Nature of Interpersonal Distance ZonesType of Interpersonal Distance ZoneCharacteristic ActivitiesDistanceIntimate ZoneContact18 inIntimate activities eg kissingCasualPersonal Zone18 in5 ftStill very personalClose informal contacts eg conversations among close friends aggressive interactions coaches who adopt an inyourface style of communicatingSocial Consultative 5 ft12 ftFormal social activities Zoneeg conversations among casual acquaintances a coach discussing defensive strategies with team before practicePubic Distance ZoneBeyond 12 ftFormal interactions eg lecturesGroup TerritoryGroup territory is different from individual territory in thatGroups have a greater tendency to establish a territory and defend it against invasionGroup territories are larger and less clearly definedIrwin Altman 1975A special location doesnt become part of a groups territory until group can exert some control over it over a period of time The nature of control and length of time over which group hascontrol have a direct influence on the development and extent of groups sense of territoriality 1Primary TerritoriesOwned and used exclusively by individuals or groupsClearly identified as theirs by othersControlled on a relatively permanent basisCentral to daytoday lives of occupants Actively controlled by group Access or use by nongroup members is prevented
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