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Chapter 5

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Western University
Kinesiology 3388A/B

Chapter 5: Home Advantage The Home Advantage Defined: The consistent finding that home teams in sport competitions win over 50% of the games played under a balanced home and away schedule. What Major Professional Team Sport has the Greatest Home Advantage? - Greatest = Soccer62% - Professional and American college basketbal61% - Hockey 58% - Football 57% - Lowest = Baseball 53% Question: Recent Phenomenon? Is the home advantage a recent phenomenon? • Travel has increased dramatically • Crowds have increased in many sports and have become more belligerent • So maybe the HA is a modern phenomenon?? Pollard & Pollard (2005): Examined long term trends in professional sport * 2 year advantage Sport Earliest Modern Advantage Baseball 59% (1876) 53% Hockey 72% (1917) 58% Football 55% (1933) 57% Soccer 65% (1888) 62% Basketball 58% (1961) 61% • Mixed message, there is no consistent trend • * won’t be asked to know percentages What about HA in individual sports? • A home advantage has been found for every individual sport examined • Example: World Cup Alpine Skiing (Bray & Carron, 1993) • Examined differences between starting seed and final placement for athletes competing in their home country • Found: home skiers improved 16% at home Example: Country of Origin Start Seed Place Home 21st 15th Non-home 20th 30th What about HA in high school sports? • Research shows the HA is also present in all high school sports examined • Gayton and Coombs (1995): Examined the HA in high school basketball • Found: the HA in high school basketball is highly similar to the HA in college and professional basketball Is there a home advantage in international competitions among countries? • Do countries enjoy an increase in their medal count when they host the Olympics? • Yes • Overall winter olympics --> improvement is 4 medals (on average) • Overall summer olympics --> improvement is 5 medals (on average) • What are some of the reasons besides HA? • Familiarity with own facility • Referees • The crowd • Travel • Ability to modify the home facility Event Measure Home Advantage Winter Olympics Improvement in medal count Avg = 4 medals over previous Olympiad Summer Olympics '' '' Avg = 5 medals FIFA World Cup Host nation's success Home nation Soccer reached finals 8/18 = 44.4% Home nation won 6/18 = 30% Does every team in every leagure enjoy a HA? Team Home Away NY Yankees 47-28 47-34 Kansas City Royals 34-47 24-51 A Conceptual Framework for Home Advantage Research: Game Game Location Critical Critical Performance Location Factors Psychological Behaviour Outcome States States Home/ Crowd Competitors Competitors Primary Away Travel Coaches Coaches Secondary Rules (aggressive) Teritiary Facility Familiarity Influence of the Rules: • Courneya and Carron (1990) • Examined the impact of batting last on the HA in slo-pitch baseball • Recorded 6,446 league games (double headers; each team batted last in one game) • Controlled for: travel (equal distance for both teams), crowds (access equal for both teams), learning/familiarity (neutral sites) • FOUND: there is no advantage to batting last! (the home team always bats last) • Liardi and Carron (2008) • Studied hockey faceoff success for home/away teams • FOUND: home tam won greater percentage of face offs in both the defensive and offensive zones! (62% - this is extremely high; usually close to 51 or 52% would be good) Influence of Travel: • Pace and Carron (1992) • Examined the impact of travel on HA in the NHL • Recorded a large number of travel variables (distance traveled, number of time zone crossed, direction of travel, # days between games, # successive games at home, # successive games on road, season game
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