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Chapter 2

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Kinesiology 3388A/B

Chapter 2: The Study of Groups What do you know about the following and how do you know it? • Is there a home advantage in baseball? • Does team cohesion contribute to team success? • All things being equal (i.e., type of sport, age, team success, etc.), are female teams more socially cohesive than male teams? How do we KNOW something? Four Ways of Knowing • 1. Method of Tenacity • Example: it’s always been so – e.g., Exercise after a coronary attack can kill you • Can sometimes be incorrect • 2. Method of Authority • Example: "my prof says..." - e.g., global warming is a severe enviromental issue • 3. Method of Commonsense • Example: "this conclusion is logical" - birds can fly so turkeys can fly • 4. Method of Science • Example: "all of us see the evidence the same way" - smoking is harmful Commonsense vs. Science - science is better if you can access it Differences 1. Building of Theories Common Sense Science Biased, sometimes illogical explanations Systematically developed on basis of repeated observations 2. Testing of Theories Common Sense Science Often tested in a selective fashion Tested in a systematic empirical fashion 3. Concept of Control Common Sense Science Often confuse correlates with causes Research design leads to confidence about test results 4. Search for Relationships Commen Sense Science Generally satisfied with simple Reoccupied with search for complex explanations interrelationships (moderators and mediators) - gender is a moderator, something that modifies the basic relationship (could be age) moderator - changes basic relationship (e.g., gender, demographic variables) mediator - something in between (e.g., cohesion leads to communication, which then leads to team success) 5. Explanations Used Common Sense Science Tendency to use metaphysical Interest is solely in testable propositions explanations (God’s will, all luck) Scientific Process - the greatest virtue of [humankind] is perhaps curiosity - France, 1921 Stage 1: Idea Generation (curiosity) - Curiosity is the foundation of science • Example: Mother – “There are 25 peo
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