Some people think that the primary motor cortex is the final pathway to movement as 50% of the neurons that go to the spinal cord arise from these neurons. This part of the brain has direct control over how we move. Hitzig: studied dogs and figured that if he poked a certain part of the brain, the dogs hemorrhoid will twitch. Jackson: british physician studied cortex as his wife has epilepsy and had over 100 seizures a day. He learned that the seizures would progress in a logical manner flowing up her arm from her fingertips to her arm to her face etc. He concluded there must be a systemic correlation but stopped there. Before, is there was someone with epilepsy, they would cut out part of brain causing it and ignore the functions lost by that structure. Penfeld would probe different parts of brain and notice what he affected such as structural function and memory.