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Kinesiology 2241A/B Chapter Notes -Appendicular Skeleton, Axial Skeleton, Myology

Course Code
Kinesiology 2241A/B
Bob Vigars

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Biomechanics Text Notes Week One
Biomechanics: area of study wherein the knowledge and methods of mechanics are
applied to the structure and function of the living human system
Anthropometrics: body’s physical characteristics, human body size, shape, composition,
include measures of heights, weight and volume
Mechanics: mechanical aspects of any system, may be divided in to statics, dynamics
Kinematics: study of forces acting on a body to influence its movement
Quantitative approach: describing a movement of the body or its parts in numerical
terms, numbers obtained by measuring or counting, instruments are expensive
Qualitative approach: produce description of movement in non-numerical terms, can
recognize the critical features of the skill
Efficient movement: is one in which a given amount of work is done with a minimum
amount of energy expenditure
Effectiveness: concerned more with performance and less with saving energy
Maximized: effort put forth in running movements should be maximized
Optimize: need to optimize running speed, optimal speed would be the specific race pace
that is the fastest the runner could maintain for 5 km
Anatomical disciplines: osteology (skeletal system), arthrology (articulations) myology
(muscles) neurology (nervous system)
Axial skeleton: skull (29), thorax (25), pelvis , vertebral column (26)
Appendicular skeleton: upper (64) and lower extremities (62)
Skeletal functions: protect vital organs in the body, support soft tissues, make RBS,
reservoir for minerals, attachment for skeletal muscles, make movement possible
Classification of bones: done by shape which therefore determines function known as
the wolff’s law
Ossification: varies with different bones and also varies for the same bones between the
sexes, closing time of the epiphyseal plates
Apophysis: muscles intersection to bone is raised section of bone
Fatigability: measure of the weakening of the bone tissue subjected to a series of
stresses, this creates issues of overuse injury
Osgood- schlatter’s dsease: increased tension at tendon attachment to the bone may
result in microtears in the tendon the apophysis or bony epiphysis
Mineralization of bones: happens when hormonal balances are not stable over time,
more stress on this creates greater mineralization
Synarthrodial articulations: when joint is immovable
Amphiarthrodial articulations: slightly moveable because a fibrocartilaginous disc
Diarthrodial articulation: most common, freely moveable
System: is a body or group of bodies or objects whose motion is to be examined
Rectilinear: straight line
Curvilinear: path is curved
Linear displacement of a system: distance that a system moves in a straight line is
measure in linear measurement units suchs as meter
Axis of rotation:point within a system is resitricted or secured so that the system roates
around this point when it moves, this is the point
Angular displacement: change in location of a rotating body
Dius of rotation: distance from any point on the rotating segment to the axis of rotation
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